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Stuttgart, Germany

Opitz I.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | Opitz I.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Specht K.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | Specht K.,Humboldt University of Berlin | And 3 more authors.
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Given the search for new solutions to better prepare cities for the future, in recent years,urban agriculture (UA) has gained in relevance. Within the context of UA, innovative organizationaland technical approaches are generated and tested. They can be understood as novelties thatbegin a potential innovation process. This empirical study is based on 17 qualitative interviewsin the U.S. (NYC; Philadelphia, PA, USA; Chicago, IL, USA). The aim was to identify: (i) the mostrelevant areas of learning and innovation; (ii) the drivers of innovation; (iii) the applied noveltiesand their specific approach to overcoming the perceived obstacles; (iv) the intrinsic challengesthat practitioners face in the innovation process; and (v) the novelties' potential to contribute tosustainability and societal change. As the results of the study demonstrate, learning and innovation inUA occur predominantly in four areas, namely, "financing and funding", "production, technology andinfrastructure", "markets and demands" and "social acceptance and cultural learning". The describednovelties include approaches to enhance the positive impacts of practicing agriculture within urbanareas, and some of them have the potential to contribute to societal change and open up opportunitiesfor social learning processes. © 2016 by the authors. Source


Opitz I.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | Berges R.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | Berges R.,Agrathaer GmbH | Piorr A.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | And 2 more authors.
Agriculture and Human Values | Year: 2015

Food security is becoming an increasingly relevant topic in the Global North, especially in urban areas. Because such areas do not always have good access to nutritionally adequate food, the question of how to supply them is an urgent priority in order to maintain a healthy population. Urban and peri-urban agriculture, as sources of local fresh food, could play an important role. Whereas some scholars do not differentiate between peri-urban and urban agriculture, seeing them as a single entity, our hypothesis is that they are distinct, and that this has important consequences for food security and other issues. This has knock-on effects for food system planning and has not yet been appropriately analysed. The objectives of this study are to provide a systematic understanding of urban and peri-urban agriculture in the Global North, showing their similarities and differences, and to analyse their impact on urban food security. To this end, an extensive literature review was conducted, resulting in the identification and comparison of their spatial, ecological and socio-economic characteristics. The findings are discussed in terms of their impact on food security in relation to the four levels of the food system: food production, processing, distribution and consumption. The results show that urban and peri-urban agriculture in the Global North indeed differ in most of their characteristics and consequently also in their ability to meet the food needs of urban inhabitants. While urban agriculture still meets food needs mainly at the household level, peri-urban agriculture can provide larger quantities and has broader distribution pathways, giving it a separate status in terms of food security. Nevertheless, both possess (unused) potential, making them valuable for urban food planning, and both face similar threats regarding urbanisation pressures, necessitating adequate planning measures. © 2015 The Author(s) Source

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