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Poznań, Poland

The aim of the paper is to identify the potential competitiveness of Polish agriculture, as well as the competitive position of agri-food products on the European market since Poland joined EU. The results of the analysis show that although, in the conditions created by accession to the EU, Poland's agriculture has achieved essential progress in terms of production, it is still characterised by low productivity, which proves that its agrarian and production structure is faulty and that further changes are needed to improve it. Despite that, Poland is characterised by a relatively strong competitive position on the Single European Market. However, it is necessary to pay attention to its insignificant share in intra-EU trade in agri-food products, which is only just over 3%. It is worth stressing that labour-intensive products, especially animal products, have a strong competitive position on the Single European Market. The most important determinant of the competitiveness of Polish agri-food products after accession to the EU comprise cost and price advantages resulting from the lower cost of production, including wages and processing margins. Source

The main issue of this article is the comparison of the supply of materials to agriculture and the food industry, as well as the comparison of the production and distribution of the supply of products of the agri-food sector in Poland and Germany. The comparative analysis shows that the structural changes in agribusiness in Poland go into the right direction; the importance of agriculture is decreasing, whereas the significance of the food industry and other industries which manufacture means of production and provide services is increasing. In Germany agriculture is the main supplier of means of production to the food industry, whereas in Poland this process is only just under way. For this reason, in Germany the agri-food industry is the principal recipient of agricultural raw materials while at the same time it is the chief supplier of finished food products (final demand), whereas in Poland this role of the agri-food industry has yet to be achieved. This fact is also confirmed by an analysis of the production and distribution of the supply of agricultural and food industry products. The supply of agricultural products is chiefly used for indirect consumption. In the food industry final demand represents the most substantial part of the supply. It mostly comprises consumption in households. It also follows from the analysis of production and distribution of the supply of agribusiness products in Germany that in Poland the role of export and import in the development of the entire food economy should increase. The equivalence of all sectors in the food economy is unquestionable, but it is the agri-food industry which should play the leading and integrating role. The main condition for making changes in this field in Poland are above all economic growth and effective use of the EU funds provided for the agri-food sector. Source

Poczta W.,AgrarUniversity Poznan | Pawlak K.,AgrarUniversity Poznan | Czubak W.,AgrarUniversity Poznan
Berichte uber Landwirtschaft | Year: 2012

The aim of the paper is to assess the changes in the volume of production, agricultural income, productivity of resources and foreign trade in agri-food products in Poland after accession to the European Union in relation to the pre-accession period. The process of Poland's integration with the European Union has had a positive effect on an increase in the volume of agricultural output and income. The growth of income of the agricultural sector would not have been possible without a significant increase in the level of CAP subsidies, as well as increase in demand for Polish agri-food products and parallel increase in agricultural prices. Significant improvement in production and economic situation of Polish agricultural sector resulted in developing of a group about 75-80 thousand farms that gain more than parity income level and make net investment. This group indicate the direction of changes of Polish agricultural sector but it is only 3 per cent of all agricultural farms in Poland. The problem of Polish agriculture is a very low labour productivity, that in 2008 was 3.5 times lower than in the EU-27. After Poland's joining to the Single European Market, the significance of the EU countries in Polish foreign trade in agri-food products increased. The share of the EU countries in Polish agri-food export rose from 51 per cent in the year preceding Poland's accession to the EU to 80% in 2009. Import of agri-food products from the EU reached 70 per cent of total Polish import of this product group. It can be said that in addition to increase in the volume of agricultural income, multiplying the share in the Single European Market was the positive effect of Poland's membership in the EU. Source

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