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Sivakumar S.M.,Jazan University | Safhi M.M.,Jazan University | Kannadasan M.,Agra University | Sukumaran N.,Vels University
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal | Year: 2011

The strategy of World Health Organization is to develop efficient and inexpensive vaccine against various infectious diseases amongst children's population. Vaccination is considered as the most cost effective health intervention known to public. Since 90. years various substances have been added in vaccine formulation but still alum is considered as the safest adjuvant for human use licensed by United States Food and Drug Administration. MF 59 and ASO4 are the adjuvants were developed recently and approved for human use. Due to poor adjuvancity, conventional vaccines require multiple recall injection at approximately time intervals to attain optimal immune response. For past approximately two decades the vaccine research has been focused towards the alternation of alum type of adjuvant in order to increase the immunogenicity. The development of new vaccines, is more efficacious or easier to deliver, or both have become an area of research that can certainly benefit from controlled release technology. Especially, the conversion of multiple administration vaccine into single administration vaccine may represent an improved advancement towards the betterment of human health care and welfare. Biodegradable polymer microparticles have been evaluated for delivering antigens in native form, sustained release keeping in mind the safety aspects. In this article we review the overall concept of adjuvants in vaccine technology with special focus towards the prospects of controlled release antigens. © 2011.


Yadav A.,Aligarh Muslim University | Yadav A.,Guru Ghasidas University | Sharma V.R.,Aligarh Muslim University | Singh P.P.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research | And 7 more authors.
EPJ Web of Conferences | Year: 2012

This paper deals with the dependence of incomplete fusion reaction dynamics on various entrance channel parameters, specially, the alpha-Q-value effect. The excitation functions for several radio-nuclides formed in 13C+159Tb interactions at ≈ 4-7 AMeV have been measured using activation technique followed by γ-spectroscopy. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed in the framework of statistical model code PACE4. A sizeable contribution of incomplete fusion has been delineated in the production of α-emitting channels in reference to the Monte Carlo simulation based statistical model code PACE4. For better insights into the onset and strength of incomplete fusion, the incomplete fusion strength function has been deduced as a function of various entrance channel parameters. A significant amount of incomplete fusion contribution has been observed at slightly above barrier energies, and found to increase smoothly with incident projectile energy. Present results have also been compared with the results obtained in the interactions of 16O and 12C with same target 159Tb, to probe the dependence of incomplete fusion on projectile, specially, on the binding energy & alpha-Q-value. The present work in light of previous data hints that instead of binding energy, the alpha-Q-value of the projectile is a parameter which influences the in-complete fusion reaction dynamics. © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2012.


Sivakumar S.M.,Jazan University | Safhi M.M.,Jazan University | Aamena J.,Jazan University | Kannadasan M.,Agra University
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2013

In recent years, there has been growing interest of developing controlled drug/vaccine delivery system. Many polymers have been focused for delivery systems among them chitosan seems to be a better polymer because of interesting properties such as nontoxic, biocompatible, biodegradable, high charge density, muco adhesive properties, non immunogenic and non carcinogenic. Therefore, chitosan has wide applications in biomedicine, waste water treatment, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. This short review is an attempt to highlight the pharmaceutical applications of chitosan polymer in brief. © RJPT All right reserved.


Srivatsava P.K.,Lovely Professional University | Maruthi Sankar G.R.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Vijaya Kumar P.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Singh S.P.,Agra University | And 3 more authors.
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2015

A study was conducted to assess fertilizer effect on pearl millet–wheat yield and plant-soil nutrients with the following treatments: T1, control; T2, 100% nitrogen (N); T3, 100% nitrogen and phosphorus (NP); T4, 100% nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK); T5, 100% NPK + zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) at 25 kg ha−1; T6, 100% NPK + farmyard manure (FYM) at 10 t ha−1; T7, 100% NPK+ verimcompost (VC) at 2.5 tha−1; T8, 100% NPK + sulfur (S) at 25 kg ha−1; T9, FYM at 10 t ha−1; T10, VC at 2.5 t ha−1; T11, 100% NPK + FYM at 10 t ha−1 + 25 kg S ha−1 + ZnSO4 at 25 kg ha−1; and T12, 150% NPK treatments. Treatments differed significantly in influencing soil-plant nutrients and grain and straw yields of both crops. Grain yield had significant correlation with soil-plant N, P, K, S, and zinc (Zn) nutrients. The study indicated superiority of T11 for attaining maximum pearl millet grain yield (2885 kg ha−1) and straw yield (7185 kg ha−1); amounts of N (48.9 kg ha−1), P (8.8 kg ha−1), K (26.3 kg ha−1), S (20.6 kg ha−1), and Zn (0.09 kg ha−1) taken up; and amounts of soil N (187.7 kg ha−1), P (13.7 kg ha−1), K (242.5 kg ha−1), S (10.1 kg ha−1), and Zn (0.70 kg ha−1). It was superior for wheat with grain yield (5215 kg ha−1) and straw yield (7220 kg ha−1); amounts of N (120.7 kg ha−1), P (13.8 kg ha−1), K (30 kg ha−1), S (14.6 kg ha−1), and Zn (0.18 kg ha−1) taken up; and maintaining soil N (185.7 kg ha−1), P (14.5 kg ha−1), K (250.5 kg ha−1), S (10.6 kg ha−1), and Zn (0.73 kg ha−1). Based on the study, 100% NPK + FYM at 10 tha−1 + Zn at 25 kg ha−1 + S at 25 kg ha−1 could be recommended for attaining maximum returns of pearl millet–wheat under semi-arid Inceptisols. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Agrawal K.K.,Agra University | Singh S.V.,A.P.S. University | Rashmikant U.S.,A.P.S. University | Singh R.D.,A.P.S. University | Chand P.,A.P.S. University
Journal of Prosthodontic Research | Year: 2011

Patients: A 45-year-old female patient came to the institute complaining of reduced salivation, pain and food lodgment in multiple teeth, and difficulty in eating. The systemic examination revealed dry eyes, dry mouth, cracking of corners of mouth and lack of appetite. The diagnostic tests were conclusive of Sjogren's syndrome, which is associated with xerostomia, ocular dryness and connective tissue disorders. Major oral problems in such patients include high caries rate, burning of oral mucosa, early tooth loss, increased tooth wear, poor tolerance for dentures and repeated failure of dental restorations. Discussion: Prosthodontic therapy for this unique patient group is challenging and neglected, due to limited choice of abutments, loss of vertical dimension and poor occlusion. Two-year follow up of a patient of Sjogren's syndrome who was rehabilitated by a combination of fixed and removable prostheses, with a simplified palatal salivary reservoir is presented. Conclusion: Though the patient felt an improvement in quality of life due to the prosthesis, slurred speech and frequent reservoir refilling remained problems. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ireland on behalf of Japan Prosthodontic Society.

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