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Merano, Italy

Giumlia-Mair A.,AGM Archeoanalisi | Albertson C.,Buffalo State College | Boschian G.,University of Pisa | Giachi G.,Soprintendenza Beni Archeologici della Toscana | And 5 more authors.
Materials Technology

Key issues related to surfaces and materials in the study and conservation of archaeological, artistic and historical objects are presented and illustrated with case studies. The materials cover a relatively broad chronological and compositional range. An important objective of the review is to inform the materials science and engineering community of the problems and needs of conservators, archaeologists, conservation specialists, art historians, archaeometrists and researchers in the field of ancient materials. In this way, improved technical information on methods designed to identify surface treatments and surface finishes, development of a common language among humanities and scientific researchers, and awareness of new applications appropriate in archaeometric studies can be promoted. © 2010 W. S. Maney & Son Ltd. Source

Giumlia-Mair A.,AGM Archeoanalisi
Surface Engineering

The 26th International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies (SMT26) was held in the École Centrale de Lyon between the 20th and the 22nd of June 2012. The program of the session consisted of ten oral contributions and four posters presented by scholars from several countries, and often by teams composed by authors from different countries. The plenary keynote was given by Professor Isabella Memmi Turbanti, Universitá di Siena, who presented an overview on coatings on ancient ceramics, discussing black gloss, transparent glazes, and enamel, and describing two special case studies. The first talk was given by Marc Aucouturier, CNRS Louvre, Paris, with research carried out by his team on the technologies of leaf gilding. Another paper on issues concerning gold was given by Amandine Crabbé who presented research performed by a Belgian/French team, on medieval treatments and ancient recipes for changing the color of gold and silver. Source

Giumlia-Mair A.,AGM Archeoanalisi | Morimoto IV Y.,Morimoto Kazari Kanagu Seisakujo | Ota K.,Q Inverse Inc.
ISIJ International

Mercury gilding (amalgam gilding or fire gilding) is an ancient technique, and it is apparently attested in the West from around the mid first millennium BC. We must note, however, that only very few gilt objects have been properly analysed and that, until now, the problem of the origin of mercury gilding is generally very little researched in different parts of the world. The earliest examples of amalgam gilding in Asia seem to come from China and are dated to the Chan Kuo or Warring States period (475-221 BC). It is unknown exactly when the earliest amalgam gilt objects appear in Japan. This technique, however, seems to have been used surely since the Nara period (710-794 AD), and it was widely employed in the Edo period. In recent times, this technique has disappeared from all decorative metal workshops, with very few exceptions, because of the high toxicity of mercury. A notable exception is the Morimoto Kazari Kanagu Seisakujo in Kyoto, a specialized workshop that is very active in the restoration and reproduction of decorative metal details in the field of Cultural Heritage. The workshop has operated since 1877 (Meiji period) by using ancient techniques, including amalgam gilding, to produce architectural metal fittings, metal decorations of shrines and ceremonial utensils. In this paper, the beginnings of the technique will be briefly outlined, and the procedures employed in the Morimoto workshop for the production of traditional decorative metalwork will be described and discussed. Source

Ferrence S.,University of Pennsylvania | Giumlia-Mair A.,AGM Archeoanalisi
ISIJ International

The excavations of Bronze Age settlement sites in eastern Crete have yielded a large corpus of metal objects. These habitation contexts tend to date to the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1600-1100 BC). The artifacts are mostly comprised of small toiletry items, small weapons such as daggers and knives, and tools for utilitarian purposes such as axes, chisels, vessels, hooks, needles, and knives. A minority of the excavated pieces has been scientifically analyzed using a range of methods such as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED XRF), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry, and Lead Isotope (LI) analysis. These techniques assist in determining elemental composition and give insight into local metallurgical traditions, which were significantly active since the Final Neolithic period in eastern Crete. Patterns emerge when comparing the results of various scientific analyses among many different types of metal objects and between different sites. Source

Giumlia-Mair A.R.G.,AGM Archeoanalisi
Surface Engineering

Artificially black patinated finds from Mycenaean contexts are among the most interesting Bronze Age metal objects. They come from several contexts in the Eastern Mediterranean and are important because of their technology and as indication of trade and cultural connections. Regrettably only few examples of items of this material have been scientifically examined. Archaeologists without a scientific background are still not aware of the true nature of the black material with precious metal inlays. This paper presents a research on the development of the patina on a Mycenaean dagger and on the famous silver cup from Enkomi in Cyprus. The alloys employed for the black inlays, analysed up to now, consist of Cu containing low amounts of Au that was artificially patinated by different methods: either the red hot object was plunged into an aqueous solution containing copper salts and alum or it was heated in the boiling solution. © 2013 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining. Source

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