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Liu A.-J.,Hebei Medical University | Hu Y.-Y.,Hebei Medical University | Li W.-B.,Hebei Medical University | Li W.-B.,Aging and Cognition Neuroscience Laboratory of Hebei Province | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neurochemistry

Glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) is the predominant subtype of glutamate transporters which are responsible for the homeostasis of extracellular glutamate. Our previous studies have shown that up-regulation in GLT-1 protein expression matches brain ischemic tolerance induced by cerebral ischemic preconditioning (CIP). To specify the role of functional changes of GLT-1 in the induction of brain ischemic tolerance by CIP, the present study was undertaken to examine changes in the binding properties of GLT-1 (including maximum binding and affinity for glutamate) and in GLT-1 mediated glutamate uptake, using L- 3H-glutamate assay in the rat hippocampus. The results indicated that CIP was able to increase the maximum binding and affinity, and uptake of GLT-1 for glutamate in hippocampal CA1 subfield either with or without the presence of the subsequent severe brain ischemic insult. Simultaneously, accompanied with the above changes, CIP significantly reduced the delayed neuronal death (DND) in this region induced by lethal global cerebral ischemia. It could be concluded that up-regulation in the maximum binding and affinity and glutamate uptake of GLT-1 contributed to the neuronal protection of CIP against global cerebral ischemic insult. © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry. Source

Hu Y.,Hebei Medical University | Li W.,Hebei Medical University | Li W.,Aging and Cognition Neuroscience Laboratory of Hebei Province | Lu L.,Hebei Medical University | And 5 more authors.

Glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) plays an essential role in the maintenance of glutamate homeostasis and is involved in the development and maintenance of pathological pain. The present study was undertaken (1) to observe the anti-nociceptive effects of ceftriaxone (Cef) in a chronic neuropathic pain model induced by chronic constrictive nerve injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve and (2) to identify the role of spinal GLT-1 in the process. CCI induced significant thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, which began from postoperative day 3 and lasted to day 21. This long-term hyperalgesia was accompanied by significant down-regulation of GLT-1 expression in the L4-L6 segments of the spinal dorsal horn, as revealed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Intraperitoneal preventive and therapeutic administration of Cef effectively prevented or reversed, respectively, the development of thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, and GLT-1 down-regulation in the spinal dorsal horn. To further determine whether the above anti-nociceptive effects of Cef are a result of the up-regulation of spinal GLT-1 expression and its function, we further observed the effects of intrathecal administration of Cef in the same model. It was found that intrathecal administration of Cef led to the specific up-regulation of GLT-1 expression and glutamate uptake (3H-glutamate) in the spinal dorsal horn, and similar anti-nociceptive effects to those of intraperitoneal administration of Cef. The above effects of intrathecal Cef administration were all significantly inhibited by intrathecal administration of GLT-1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (As-ODNs). These results indicate that Cef plays an anti-nociceptive role by up-regulating spinal GLT-1 expression and its function. © 2009 International Association for the Study of Pain. Source

Zhang M.,Hebei Medical University | Li W.-B.,Hebei Medical University | Li W.-B.,Aging and Cognition Neuroscience Laboratory of Hebei Province | Liu Y.-X.,Hebei Medical University | And 7 more authors.
Neurochemistry International

It is well known that neurons in the CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) subfields of the hippocampus are resistant to short period of ischemia which is usually lethal to pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA1 subfield. The present study was undertaken to clarify whether the inherent higher resistance of neurons in CA3 and DG to ischemia is associated with glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) in rats. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry assay showed that the basal expressions of GLT-1 in both CA3 and DG were much higher than that in CA1 subfield. Mild global brain ischemia for 8 min induced delayed death of almost all CA1 pyramidal neurons and marked GLT-1 down-regulation in the CA1 subfield, but it was not lethal to the neurons in either CA3 or DG and induced GLT-1 up-regulation and astrocyte activation showed normal soma and aplenty slender processes in the both areas. When the global brain ischemia was prolonged to 25 min, neuronal death was clearly observed in CA3 and DG accompanied with down-regulation of GLT-1 expression and abnormal astrocytes represented with hypertrophic somas, but shortened processes. After down-regulating of GLT-1 expression and function by its antisense oligodeoxynucleotides or inhibiting GLT-1 function by dihydrokainate, an inhibitor of GLT-1, the mild global brain ischemia for 8 min, which usually was not lethal to CA3 and DG neurons, induced the neuronal death in CA3 and DG subfields. Taken together, the higher expression of GLT-1 in the CA3 and DG contributes to their inherent resistance to ischemia. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Zhang Y.-P.,Hebei Medical University | Li W.-B.,Hebei Medical University | Wang W.-L.,Hebei Medical University | Liu J.,Hebei Medical University | And 5 more authors.
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

Aim:Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is involved in the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects on pulmonary fibrosis of silencing PAI-1 expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA) and to assess the possible underlying mechanisms.Methods:Male Wistar rats were subjected to intratracheal injection of bleomycin (BLM, 5 mg/kg, 0.2 mL) to induce pulmonary fibrosis. Histopathological changes of lung tissue were examined with HE or Masson's trichrome staining. The expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen type-I and type-III, caspase-3, as well as p-ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt in the lung tissue were evaluated using imunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses. The fibroblasts isolated from BLM-induced fibrotic lung tissue were cultured and transfected with pcDNA-PAI-1 or PAI-1siRNA. The expression level of PAI-1 in the fibroblasts was measured using real time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The fibroblast proliferation was evaluated using MTT assay.Results:Intratracheal injection of PAI-1-siRNA (7.5 nmoL/0.2 mL) significantly alleviated alveolitis and collagen deposition, reduced the expression of PAI-1, α-SMA, collagen type-I and collagen type-III, and increased the expression of caspase-3 in BLM-induced fibrotic lung tissue. In consistence with the in vivo results, the proliferation of the cultured fibroblasts from BLM-induced fibrotic lung tissue was inhibited by transfection with PAI-1-siRNA, and accelerated by overexpression of PAI-1 by transfection with pcDNA-PAI-1. The expression of caspase-3 was increased as a result of PAI-1 siRNA transfection, and decreased after transfection with pcDNA-PAI-1. In addition, the levels of p-ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt in the fibrogenic lung tissue were reduced after treatment with PAI-1siRNA.Conclusion:The data demonstrate that PAI-1 siRNA inhibits alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis in BLM-treated rats via inhibiting the proliferation and promoting the apoptosis of fibroblasts. Suppression ERK and AKT signalling pathways might have at least partly contributed to this process. Targeting PAI-1 is a promising therapeutic strategy for pulmonary fibrosis. © 2012 CPS and SIMM. Source

Hu Y.-Y.,Hebei Medical University | Xu J.,Hebei Medical University | Zhang M.,Hebei Medical University | Wang D.,Hebei Medical University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Neurochemistry

Ceftriaxone(Cef) selectively increases the expression of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1), which was thought to be neuroprotective in some circumstances. However, the effect of Cef on glutamate uptake of GLT-1 was mostly assayed using in vitro studies such as primary neuron/astrocyte cultures or brain slices. In addition, the effect of Cef on neurons in different ischemic models was still discrepant. Therefore, this study was undertaken to observe the effect of Cef on neurons in global brain ischemia in rats, and especially to provide direct evidence of the up-regulation of GLT-1 uptake for glutamate contributing to the neuronal protection of Cef against brain ischemia. Neuropathological evaluation indicated that administration of Cef, especially pre-treatment protocols, significantly prevented delayed neuronal death in hippocampal CA1 subregion normally induced by global brain ischemia. Simultaneously, pre-administration of Cef significantly up-regulated the expression of GLT-1. Particularly, GLT-1 uptake assay with 3H-glutamate in living cells from adult rats showed that up-regulation in glutamate uptake accompanied up-regulated GLT-1 expression. Inhibition of GLT-1 by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides or dihydrokainate significantly inhibited the Cef-induced up-regulation in GLT-1 uptake and the neuroprotective effect against global ischemia. Thus, we may conclude that Cef protects neurons against global brain ischemia via up-regulation of the expression and glutamate uptake of GLT-1. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry. Source

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