Induction chemotherapy followed by concomitant radiotherapy and weekly cisplatin versus the same concomitant chemoradiotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A randomized phase II study conducted by the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG) with biomarker evaluation
Fountzilas G.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki |
Ciuleanu E.,Ion Chiricuta Cancer Institute |
Bobos M.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki |
Kalogera-fountzila A.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki |
And 12 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2012
Background: Concomitant administration of radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy with cisplatin (CCRT) is considered standard treatment in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer (LA-NPC). The role of induction chemotherapy (IC) when followed by CCRT in improving locoregional control remains controversial. Patients and methods: Totally, 141 eligible patients with LA-NPC were randomized to either three cycles of IC with cisplatin 75 mg/m. 2, epirubicin 75 mg/m. 2 and paclitaxel (Taxol) 175 mg/m. 2 (CEP) every 3 weeks followed by definitive RT (70 Gy) and concomitant weekly infusion of cisplatin 40 mg/m. 2 (investigational arm, 72 patients) or to the same CCRT regimen alone (control arm, 69 patients). Results: Sixty-two patients (86%) received three cycles of IC. No difference between the arms was observed in the number of patients who completed RT (61 versus 64, P = 018). Overall and complete response rates were very similar in the two arms and so were 3-year progression-free and overall survival rates. Grade III or IV toxic effects from IC were infrequent, apart of alopecia. Mucositis, weight loss and leukopenia were the most prominent side-effects from CCRT. Conclusion: IC with three cycles of CEP when followed by CCRT did not significantly improve response rates and/or survival compared with that of CCRT alone. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Alexandra Hospital, Laiko General Hospital, Hippokration Hospital, Hygeia Hospital and 9 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oncotarget | Year: 2016
Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are considered in the prognosis of breast cancer (BC) patients. Here, we investigated the prognostic/predictive effect of TILs in patients treated in the frame of four prospective trials with adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy in the pre- and post-trastuzumab era.TILs density was histologically assessed as percentage of stromal area on whole routine sections of 2613 BC (1563 Luminal A/B; 477 Luminal HER2; 246 HER2-enriched; 327 triple negative [TNBC]) and were evaluated as high/low at three cut-offs (c/o; 50% [lymphocytic predominance, LP], 35% and 25%), in separate training and validation sets.High TILs were present in 3.5%, 6.5% and 11.5% of all tumors, using the 50%, 35% and 25% c/o, respectively. TILs status did not interact with BC subtypes or trastuzumab treatment. LPBC patient outcome was not affected by nodal status, while high TILs were favorable in TNBC with unfavorable nodal status. When adjusted for standard clinicopathological parameters and treatment, high TILs independently predicted for favorable outcome, e.g., disease-free survival with the 35% c/o in the entire cohort (HR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.69, p < 0.001) and in specific subtypes.High TILs tumors, especially LPBC seem worthy validating as a separate entity of favorable prognosis in breast cancer.
PubMed | St Lukes Hospital, Hippokration Hospital, University of Ioannina, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and 8 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Anticancer research | Year: 2016
Gastric cancer is a relatively common malignancy. Recently, the presence of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was identified as a molecular target in a proportion of patients who benefited from the addition of appropriate anti-HER2 treatments. Our study explored the clinical and prognostic role of known HER family members, human epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (EGFR or HER1), HER2, HER3 and HER4.Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue samples from 249 gastric cancer patients were studied by immunohistochemistry for protein expression of EGFR, HER2, HER3 and HER4.Of the 249 evaluable patients, 32 did not have complete data of treatment details and/or follow-up and were excluded from the survival analyses. Of the 217 patients with complete treatment and follow-up data, 178 were operated and treated for early disease (group 1), while 39 for advanced disease (group 2). The frequency of positive EGFR, HER2, HER3 and HER4 protein expression in all patients was 17.5%, 11.8%, 14.8% and 32.9%, respectively. There were no differences in protein expression of any of the markers between the two groups. There were, however, statistically significant associations between HER4 and all other HER family members, as well as between HER2 and HER3 expression. Of note, EGFR-positive membranous protein expression was significantly associated with the presence of lymphovascular invasion (p=0.027) and HER3 and HER4 negative cytoplasmic protein expression with well/moderately-differentiated tumors (p=0.030 and p=0.014, respectively). None of the HER family members were of prognostic value for OS in univariate analysis.The present study confirmed the known protein expression frequencies of HER family members in gastric cancer in a Greek population. Several associations were observed among the HER family members and between clinicopathological characteristics and HER family members. Further research is needed on their exact prognostic role, as well as their therapeutic targeting.
PubMed | Hygeia Hospital, Hippokration Hospital, 424 Army General Hospital, University of Ioannina and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical breast cancer | Year: 2016
Intensive chemotherapy confers benefit to patients with high-risk early breast cancer (BC). We characterized the feasibility and toxicity profile of anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy (ACAC) in older women with early BC.Available data from women who received ACAC for BC in 3 randomized trials were retrieved. We identified women aged >65 years and we examined differences in tolerability and delivery of chemotherapy, toxicity, and treatment outcome.From a total of 2640 patients, we identified 453 patients (17%) as being >65 years old, 89% of whom had tumors that were node-positive, with 77% who were hormone receptor-positive. At least 90% of the planned doses were delivered in 37% of the elderly, compared with 49% in the younger patients (P< .0001). Grade 3 and 4 hematological toxicity was observed in 32% of elderly patients, compared with 21% of the younger (P< .0001). Febrile neutropenia occurred in 4.5% of the elderly patients, as opposed to 2.0% in the younger patients (P< .002). Elderly patients experienced more frequent Grade 3 and 4 fatigue, mucositis, and sensory neuropathy. Relative dose intensities were significantly lower in elderly patients. Treatment discontinuation was not different in the 2 groups. At a median follow-up of 120 months, competing risks analysis showed a significant benefit in disease-free survival for elderly patients.Elderly BC patients treated with ACAC derive clinical benefit comparable to that in younger patients, mainly at the cost of increased risk of hematological toxicity. This should be taken into account in decision-making and treatment individualization in high-risk BC patients.
PubMed | Hippokration Hospital, University of Ioannina, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of translational medicine | Year: 2016
There is an unmet need for more efficient patient stratification for receiving trastuzumab in the metastatic breast cancer (mBC) setting, since only part of such patients benefit from the addition of this agent to chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of biomarkers including MYC and MET in mBC patients treated with trastuzumab-based regimens.mBC patients, locally tested as HER2-positive, treated with trastuzumab and chemotherapy between 1998 and 2010 were evaluated. Paraffin tumors (n=229) were retrospectively centrally assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for HER2, ER, PgR and Ki67; fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2, TOP2A and centromere (CEN) 17, MYC and CEN8, MET and CEN7; qPCR for MYC, MET copy number (CN); and, for PI3K activation (PIK3CA mutations; PTEN and phospho-mTOR protein expression). Increased CEN CN was assessed based on normal cut-offs. Time to progression (TTP) and survival were evaluated from the initiation of trastuzumab as first line treatment.Among all tumors, 90 were HER2-negative upon central testing (ambiguous HER2) and the rest were true HER2-positive. Further, 156 patients presented with mBC upon relapse of pre-treated disease (R-mBC) and 65 were diagnosed at stage IV (de novo mBC). Concordance between FISH and qPCR on gene CN status was fair for MYC (Kappa=0.458) and absent for MET. The presence of MYC CN gain with qPCR and the absence of PI3K activation were infrequent events (7 and 8% of evaluable tumors, respectively), while 41% of tumors had increased CEN CN in one or more chromosomes, indicative of chromosomal instability. The most consistent finding in the entire cohort and in the above patient subgroups with respect to outcome was the unfavourable effect of MYC CN gain, which was retained upon multivariable analysis (e.g., survival in the entire cohort, HR 6.02; 95% CI 2.67-13.6; p<0.001). Further unfavourable prognosticators were increased CEN CN in one chromosome in R-mBC but not in de novo mBC (multivariable interaction p=0.048), PI3K activation in R-mBC (multivariable p=0.004) and increased Ki67 for patient TTP.MYC gene copies, centromere status and PI3K activation may adversely impact trastuzumab treated mBC patient outcome and seem worthy validating in larger series.
PubMed | Alexandra Hospital, Hygeia Hospital, Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, University of New South Wales and 10 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oncotarget | Year: 2016
We investigated the impact of PIK3CA and TP53 mutations and p53 protein status on the outcome of patients who had been treated with adjuvant anthracycline-taxane chemotherapy within clinical trials in the pre- and post-trastuzumab era.TP53 and PIK3CA mutations were found in 380 (21.5%) and 458 (25.9%) cases, respectively, including 104 (5.9%) co-mutated tumors; p53 immunopositivity was observed in 848 tumors (53.5%). TP53 mutations (p < 0.001) and p53 protein positivity (p = 0.001) were more frequent in HER2-positive and triple negative (TNBC) tumors, while PIK3CA mutations were more frequent in Luminal A/B tumors (p < 0.001). TP53 mutation status and p53 protein expression but not PIK3CA mutation status interacted with trastuzumab treatment for disease-free survival; patients with tumors bearing TP53 mutations or immunopositive for p53 protein fared better when treated with trastuzumab, while among patients treated with trastuzumab those with the above characteristics fared best (interaction p = 0.017 for mutations; p = 0.015 for IHC). Upon multivariate analysis the above interactions remained significant in HER2-positive patients; in the entire cohort, TP53 mutations were unfavorable in patients with Luminal A/B (p = 0.003) and TNBC (p = 0.025); p53 immunopositivity was strongly favorable in patients treated with trastuzumab (p = 0.009).TP53 and PIK3CA mutation status was examined in 1766 paraffin tumor DNA samples with informative semiconductor sequencing results. Among these, 1585 cases were also informative for p53 protein status assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC; 10% positivity cut-off).TP53 mutations confer unfavorable prognosis in patients with Luminal A/B and TNBC tumors, while p53 immunopositivity may predict for trastuzumab benefit in the adjuvant setting.
PubMed | Alexandra Hospital, Hygeia Hospital, Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, Hippokration Hospital and 8 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016
Stromal tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) density is an outcome predictor in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Herein we asked whether TILs are related to coding mutation load and to the chemical class of the resulting mutated amino acids, i.e., charged, polar, and hydrophobic mutations.We examined paraffin tumors from TNBC patients who had been treated with adjuvant chemotherapy mostly within clinical trials (training cohort, N = 133; validation, N = 190) for phenotype concordance; TILs density; mutation load and types.Concordance of TNBC phenotypes was 42.1% upon local / central, and 72% upon central / central pathology assessment. TILs were not associated with mutation load, type and class of mutated amino acids. Polar and charged mutation patterns differed between TP53 and PIK3CA (p<0.001). Hydrophobic mutations predicted for early relapse in patients with high nodal burden and <50% TILs tumors (training: HR 3.03, 95%CI 1.11-8.29, p = 0.031; validation: HR 2.90, 95%CI 0.97-8.70, p = 0.057), especially if compared to patients with >50% TILs tumors (training p = 0.003; validation p = 0.015).TILs density is unrelated to mutation load in TNBC, which may be regarded as an unstable phenotype. If further validated, hydrophobic mutations along with TILs density may help identifying TNBC patients in higher risk for relapse.
Panoilia E.,University of Patras |
Schindler E.,Uppsala University |
Samantas E.,Agii Anargiri Cancer Hospital |
Aravantinos G.,Agii Anargiri Cancer Hospital |
And 5 more authors.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology | Year: 2015
Purpose: To characterize the population pharmacokinetics of bevacizumab, its binding properties to VEGF165 and the effect of demographic data and VEGF-A polymorphisms on the interplay between bevacizumab serum pharmacokinetics and VEGF165 serum concentrations in patients with colorectal cancer stage IV. Methods: Bevacizumab and VEGF165 data were collected from 19 adult patients with metastatic colorectal cancer enrolled in an observational clinical study. Bevacizumab was administered with one of the following combinations: 5-FU/Leucovorin/Irinotecan, 5-FU/Leucovorin/Oxaliplatin, Capecitabine/Irinotecan at doses ranging from 5 to 10 mg/kg every 2 or 3 weeks. Data analysis was performed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling implemented in NONMEM 7.3. Results: A target-mediated drug disposition model adequately described bevacizumab concentration changes over time and its binding characteristics to VEGF165. The estimated clearance of bevacizumab was 0.18 L/day, the free VEGF165 levels at baseline were 212 ng/L, and the elimination rate constant of free VEGF165 was 0.401 day-1. Body weight was allometrically included in all PK parameters. Conclusion: The final model adequately described the pre- and post-dose concentrations of total bevacizumab and free VEGF165 in patients with colorectal cancer. Model parameters were consistent with those previously reported for patients with solid tumors. Correlations between the binding affinity of bevacizumab and the VEGF-2578C/A and VEGF-634G/C polymorphisms were noticed. © 2015 The Author(s).
PubMed | Hippokration Hospital, University of Ioannina, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Konstantopoulio Agia Olga General Hospital and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Anticancer research | Year: 2016
The aim of this study was to evaluate the mRNA expression pattern of growth- and survival-related genes and assess their prognostic significance in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.In total, 98 patients were included in this retrospective translational research study and were evaluated for Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutational status, and v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1), AKT serine/threonine kinase 2 (AKT2), AKT serine/threonine kinase 3 (AKT3), cyclin D1 (CCND1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), hepatocellular growth factor receptor (MET), avian myelomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC), nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 (NFKb1), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (FRAP1) genes mRNA expression. Among these patients, 73 received first-line gemcitabine combined with erlotinib (N=57) or gefitinib (N=16).KRAS mutation did not correlate with mRNA gene expression. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering according to mRNA gene expression successfully distinguished four prognostically distinct groups of tumors. Overexpression of all genes was associated with best prognosis, while suppression or heterogeneous expression patterns of the examined genes were associated with expression patterns of growth- and survival-related genes, classifying pancreatic tumors into distinct groups with possibly different outcomes.
Lessons from the past: Long-term safety and survival outcomes of a prematurely terminated randomized controlled trial on prophylactic vs hemoglobin-based administration of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia
PubMed | Hippokration Hospital, General Hospital of Chania, 251 Airforce General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular and clinical oncology | Year: 2016
Prophylactic erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) administration for chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA) is not supported by current guidelines. Long-term follow-up of patients WHO had been treated with ESA for CIA in the past may provide useful information. In 2002, we undertook a prospective, randomized phase III trial of prophylactic vs. hemoglobin (Hb)-based (threshold: 11 mg/dl) ESA administration in patients with solid tumors and CIA. ESA administration FOR CIA was permanently suspended in 2007 in view of published data at that time, while patient surveillance continued. Among 630 evaluable patients, 38.6% were male, 50.9% had advanced cancer at diagnosis, 40.6% had Hb levels <12 mg/dl at baseline and 47.9% received ESA prophylactically (1:1 randomization). The major tumor types included colorectal (36.0%), breast (20.6%), non-prostate genitourinary (11.0%) and lung CANCER (8.4%). After a median follow-up of 85.4 months, 358 patients had relapsed and 380 had succumbed to the disease. Patients in the prophylactic ESA group (GROUP A; experimental arm), as compared with those in the Hb-based group (GROUP B; iron supplementation alone), exhibited A significantly more prominent increase in median Hb levels, particularly in the subset of patients with non-metastatic disease (two-sided P<0.01) among patients receiving chemotherapy for advanced cancer, those who received ESAs prophylactically exhibited a lower incidence of CIA (all grades: P=0.014, grades 3-4: P=0.034) and fatigue (all grades: P<0.001, grades 3-4: P=0.055), but a higher rate of a composite outcome encompassing all thrombosis-related events (all grades: P=0.043, grades 3-4: P=0.099). These differences were less prominent in the group of patients who received adjuvant treatment. There were no significant differences in overall mortality and relapse/progression rates between the two groups. therefore, prophylactic, compared with Hb-based, administration of ESAs for CIA in patients with solid tumors, was found to be associated with a significantly lower incidence of anemia and fatigue, but with a marginally higher rate of thrombosis-related adverse events, particularly in patients receiving first-line chemotherapy for advanced cancer.