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Brno, Czech Republic

Hrouda F.,AGICO Inc. | Hrouda F.,Charles University
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2011

Mathematical models of the frequency-dependent susceptibility in rocks, soils and environmental materials have been adapted to measurements performed with multiple operating frequencies (465, 976, 3904, 4650, 15 616, 100 000 and 250 000 Hz) on the basis of log-normal volume distribution of magnetic particles. The XFD parameter depends, in addition to the amount of SP particles, also on the operating frequencies, whose values should be therefore also presented. The model curves of the XFD parameter versus arithmetical mean (μ) of the logarithms of grain volume are roughly bell-like shaped. The width and peak position of these curves is controlled by mean and standard deviation of the logarithmic volume distribution. Magnetic susceptibility contributions from paramagnetic minerals, and from ferrimagnetic particles not belonging to a unimodal SP/SD volume distribution, tend to decrease the XFD parameter. Therefore, low XFD values do not therefore necessarily indicate low amount of SP particles, but can also be indicative of the presence of the paramagnetic fraction. A new parameter XR is introduced based on susceptibility measurements at three operating frequencies; it is insensitive to dia- and paramagnetic fractions and helps us to differentiate between wide and narrow size distributions of ferromagnetic particles. A new XFB parameter is introduced that originates through normalizing the XFD parameter by the difference of natural logarithms of operating frequencies and related to the decade difference between the frequencies. It is convenient for comparison of the Bartington MS-2 Susceptibility Meter data with the MFK1-FA Kappabridge data. © 2011 The Author Geophysical Journal International © 2011 RAS.

Measurement of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) has become an important tool for Structural Geological analysis in the past few decades. In the past, AMS data have been used for petrofabric analysis of deformed rocks as well as for gauging strain. However, the AMS of some rocks can be carried by both ferromagnetic and paramagnetic minerals. Separating effects of these mineral groups on the rock's AMS is difficult because of expensive and commercially less available instrumentation. On the other hand, instrumentation is available in most rock magnetic and palaeomagnetic laboratories for resolving bulk susceptibility into ferromagnetic and paramagnetic components. Mathematical modelling was made of the relationship between bulk susceptibility and AMS. If the contribution of the ferromagnetic or the paramagnetic fraction, to the rock susceptibility is dominant (let us say higher than 80%), the resultant AMS is relatively near to the AMS of the dominating fraction in all aspects, the degree of AMS, shape parameter and orientation of principal susceptibilities. In the interpretation of the AMS of rocks with dominating one fraction, the resolution of the AMS into paramagnetic and ferromagnetic components is not necessary, the resolution of bulk susceptibility into components is sufficient that can be made using the instrumentation available in most rock magnetic and palaeomagnetic laboratories. © GEOL. SOC. INDIA.

Hrouda F.,AGICO Inc. | Hrouda F.,Charles University | Pokorny J.,AGICO Inc.
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica | Year: 2011

Frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility, which is an important tool for environmental and palaeoclimatologic research, is usually relatively low, mostly less than 15% of the low frequency value and there is a demand for high precision of its measurement. The accuracy required for the susceptibility measurement at individual operating frequencies for precise determination of the parameter characterizing the frequency-dependent susceptibility was investigated theoretically and also experimentally through repeated measurement of artificial specimens and sediments of a loess/palaeosol sequence using the MFK1 Kappabridge. It was found that the variation in the frequency-dependence in the order of 1% is well reproducible and the measurements can be interpreted in terms of magnetic granulometry even in weakly magnetic materials. © 2011 Institute of Geophysics of the ASCR, v.v.i.

Hrouda F.,AGICO Inc. | Hrouda F.,Charles University | Jezek J.,Charles University
Tectonophysics | Year: 2014

In some geological processes, new very fine-grained magnetic minerals may originate. The variation in content of these minerals is routinely investigated by frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility, which is traditionally interpreted in terms of the presence of viscous superparamagnetic (SP) particles in addition to stable single domain (SSD) and multidomain (MD) magnetic particles. In addition, the fabric of these grains can be investigated through the frequency-dependent AMS. Through standard AMS measurement at different frequencies, one can evaluate the contribution of SP particles to the whole-rock AMS; appropriate methods were developed. Various rocks, soils and ceramics, showing frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility, were investigated. Measurable changes of AMS with operating frequency were revealed and attempts are made of their fabric interpretation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Hajna J.,Charles University | Zak J.,Charles University | Zak J.,Czech Geological Survey | Kachlik V.,Charles University | And 2 more authors.
Precambrian Research | Year: 2010

The Teplá-Barrandian unit (TBU) of Central Europe's Bohemian Massif exposes perhaps the best preserved fragment of an accretionary wedge in the Avalonian-Cadomian belt, which developed along the northern active margin of Gondwana during Late Neoproterozoic. In the central TBU, three NE-SW-trending lithotectonic units (Domains 1-3) separated by antithetic brittle faults differ in lithology, style and intensity of deformation, magnetic fabric (AMS), and degree of Cadomian regional metamorphism. The flysch-like Domain 1 to the NW is the most outboard (trenchward) unit which has never been significantly buried and experienced only weak deformation and folding. The central, mélange-like Domain 2 is characterized by heterogenous intense deformation developed under lower greenschist facies conditions, and was thrust NW over Domain 1 along a SE-dipping fault. To the SE, the most inboard (arcward) Domain 3 is lithologically monotonous (dominated by graywackes and slates), was buried to depths corresponding up to the lower greenschist facies conditions, where it was overprinted by a pervasive SE-dipping cleavage and then was exhumed along a major NW-dipping normal fault. We interpret these domains to represent allochtonous tectonic slices that were differentially buried and then exhumed from various depths within the accretionary wedge during Cadomian subduction. The NW-directed thrusting of Domain 2 over Domain 1 may have been caused by accretion at the wedge front, whereas the SE-dipping cleavage and SE-side-up exhumation of Domain 3 may record inclined pervasive shortening during tectonic underplating and subsequent horizontal extension of the rear of the wedge. The boundary faults were later reactivated during Cambro-Ordovician extension and Variscan compression. Compared to related terranes of the Cadomian belt, the TBU lacks exposed continental basement, evidence for regional strike-slip shearing, and extensive backarc magmatism and LP-HT metamorphism, which could be interpreted to reflect flat-slab Cadomian subduction. This, in turn, suggests that Cadomian accretionary wedges developed in a manner identical to those of modern settings, elevating the TBU to a key position for understanding the style, kinematics, and timing of accretionary processes along the Avalonian-Cadomian belt. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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