Kemenesi G.,University of Pécs |
Zhang D.,China Agricultural University |
Marton S.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences |
Dallos B.,University of Pécs |
And 8 more authors.
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2015
Bats are important reservoirs of many viruses with zoonotic potential worldwide, including Europe. Among bat viruses, members of the Picornaviridae family remain a neglected group. We performed viral metagenomic analyses on Miniopterus schreibersii bat faecal samples, collected in Hungary in 2013. In the present study we report the first molecular data and genomic characterization of a novel picornavirus from the bat species M. schreibersii in Europe. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the novel bat picornaviruses unambiguously belong to the Mischivirus genus and were highly divergent from other bat-derived picornaviruses of the Sapelovirus genus. Although the Hungarian viruses were most closely related to Mischivirus A, they formed a separate monophyletic branch within the genus. © 2015 The Authors.
PubMed | University of Pécs, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Eszterházy Károly College, Aggtelek National Park Directorate and University of Bari
Type: | Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases | Year: 2016
Emerging viral diseases represent an ongoing challenge for globalized world and bats constitute an immense, partially explored, reservoir of potentially zoonotic viruses. Caliciviruses are important human and animal pathogens and, as observed for human noroviruses, they may impact on human health on a global scale. By screening fecal samples of bats in Hungary, calicivirus RNA was identified in the samples of Myotis daubentonii and Eptesicus serotinus bats. In order to characterize more in detail the bat caliciviruses, large portions of the genome sequence of the viruses were determined. Phylogenetic analyses and molecular modeling identified firmly the two viruses as candidate members within the Caliciviridae family, with one calicivirus strain resembling members of the Sapovirus genus and the other bat calicivirus being more related to porcine caliciviruses of the proposed genus Valovirus. This data serves the effort for detecting reservoir hosts for potential emerging viruses and recognize important evolutionary relationships.
PubMed | University of Pécs, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Eszterházy Károly College and Aggtelek National Park Directorate
Type: | Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases | Year: 2015
Bats are important hosts of many viruses and in several cases they may serve as natural reservoirs even for viruses with zoonotic potential worldwide, including Europe. However, they also serve as natural reservoir for other virus groups with important evolutionary relevance and yet unknown zoonotic potential. We performed viral metagenomic analyses on Miniopterus schreibersii bat fecal samples. As a result, a novel parvovirus was detected for the first time in European bats. Although, bufavirus was recently discovered as a novel human infecting parvovirus, here we report sequence data of the first bufavirus from European bats related to human bufaviruses. Based on our sequence data a possible intragenic recombination event was detected within bufaviruses which may serves as an important milestone in their evolution.
PubMed | University of Pécs, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Eszterházy Károly College, Aggtelek National Park Directorate and China Agricultural University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of general virology | Year: 2015
Bats are important reservoirs of many viruses with zoonotic potential worldwide, including Europe. Among bat viruses, members of the Picornaviridae family remain a neglected group. We performed viral metagenomic analyses on Miniopterus schreibersii bat faecal samples, collected in Hungary in 2013. In the present study we report the first molecular data and genomic characterization of a novel picornavirus from the bat species M. schreibersii in Europe. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the novel bat picornaviruses unambiguously belong to the Mischivirus genus and were highly divergent from other bat-derived picornaviruses of the Sapelovirus genus. Although the Hungarian viruses were most closely related to Mischivirus A, they formed a separate monophyletic branch within the genus.
PubMed | Apathy Istvan Association, University of South Australia, Polish Academy of Sciences, University of Szeged and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: Annals of botany | Year: 2016
Dolines are small- to large-sized bowl-shaped depressions of karst surfaces. They may constitute important microrefugia, as thermal inversion often maintains cooler conditions within them. This study aimed to identify the effects of large- (macroclimate) and small-scale (slope aspect and vegetation type) environmental factors on cool-adapted plants in karst dolines of East-Central Europe. We also evaluated the potential of these dolines to be microrefugia that mitigate the effects of climate change on cool-adapted plants in both forest and grassland ecosystems.We compared surveys of plant species composition that were made between 2007 and 2015 in 21 dolines distributed across four mountain ranges (sites) in Hungary and Romania. We examined the effects of environmental factors on the distribution and number of cool-adapted plants on three scales: (1) regional (all sites); (2) within sites and; (3) within dolines. Generalized linear models and non-parametric tests were used for the analyses.Macroclimate, vegetation type and aspect were all significant predictors of the diversity of cool-adapted plants. More cool-adapted plants were recorded in the coolest site, with only few found in the warmest site. At the warmest site, the distribution of cool-adapted plants was restricted to the deepest parts of dolines. Within sites of intermediate temperature and humidity, the effect of vegetation type and aspect on the diversity of cool-adapted plants was often significant, with more taxa being found in grasslands (versus forests) and on north-facing slopes (versus south-facing slopes).There is large variation in the number and spatial distribution of cool-adapted plants in karst dolines, which is related to large- and small-scale environmental factors. Both macro- and microrefugia are therefore likely to play important roles in facilitating the persistence of cool-adapted plants under global warming.
Vilisics F.,Szent Istvan University |
Solymos P.,Szent Istvan University |
Solymos P.,University of Alberta |
Nagy A.,Debrecen University |
And 3 more authors.
Biologia | Year: 2011
We studied abundance and diversity patterns of terrestrial isopod assemblages along a 'micro-scale' vertical gradient in sinkholes in the Aggtelek National Park, Hungary. Time restricted manual sampling yielded ten native species, including endemic and rare ones. Along the gradient we found no major differences in species richness and -composition, and abundance decreased from the bottoms to the upper zones of the sinkholes. Species specific habitat preference on a vertical gradient showed two distinct groups by indicator species analysis: occurrence of habitat "generalists" was irrespective of vertical zones while "specialists" were restricted to the bottoms of the dolines. The latter group is formed mainly by rare species. We found that both diversity and evenness of isopod assemblages were highest in the bottom zone. Our results draw the attention to the significance of such common, yet undiscovered surficial depressions that can provide shelters for rare and specialist species and can provide shelter for survival of populations under changing climatic conditions. © 2011 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.
Lengyel S.,Debrecen University |
Varga K.,Debrecen University |
Kosztyi B.,Debrecen University |
Lontay L.,Aggtelek National Park Directorate |
And 3 more authors.
Applied Vegetation Science | Year: 2012
Question: European landscapes have long been influenced by intensifying use by humans. Although habitat restoration can reverse this process, it is often limited in scope by socioeconomic constraints. Here we present a grassland restoration project that is exceptional in spatial scale in Europe. Location: A total area of 760 ha of arable land was restored in the Egyek-Pusztakócs unit (50 km 2) of Hortobágy National Park, east Hungary, between 2005 and 2008. Methods: Restoration targeted alkali steppes and loess grasslands by sowing seeds of either two (alkali) or three (loess) foundation grass species. In 2009, we surveyed the vegetation in restored and target grasslands and quantified the factors influencing restoration success in a space-for-time substitution design. Results: We recorded 100 species of flowering plants, of which 37 species were non-weed, 'target' species. Annual weeds dominated 1-yr-old fields but had decreased dramatically by the third year due to a developing perennial grass cover. Former alfalfa fields had proportionally fewer weeds than former cereal and sunflower fields. The diversity of common species and the cover of target species increased from 1- to 4-yr-old restored fields. Alkali-restored fields had more heterogeneous vegetation and more species than loess-restored fields. Distance to the target vegetation did not directly affect vegetation variables. There was significant spatial variability in vegetation development, possibly suggesting several local pathways of succession. Conclusions: Grassland restoration was generally successful in accelerating secondary succession towards alkali steppes and loess grasslands. However, further management is necessary to counter the homogenizing effects of litter accumulation, to reduce perennial weeds and to enhance the colonization of target species. Our project provides useful practical insights into grassland restoration and in applying restoration at a number of sites within a larger area to conserve biodiversity at the landscape scale. © 2012 International Association for Vegetation Science.
PubMed | Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Aggtelek National Park Directorate and Robert Koch Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Acta veterinaria Hungarica | Year: 2015
From over 1250 extant species of the order Chiroptera, 25 and 28 are known to occur in Germany and Hungary, respectively. Close to 350 samples originating from 28 bat species (17 from Germany, 27 from Hungary) were screened for the presence of adenoviruses (AdVs) using a nested PCR that targets the DNA polymerase gene of AdVs. An additional PCR was designed and applied to amplify a fragment from the gene encoding the IVa2 protein of mastadenoviruses. All German samples originated from organs of bats found moribund or dead. The Hungarian samples were excrements collected from colonies of known bat species, throat or rectal swab samples, taken from live individuals that had been captured for faunistic surveys and migration studies, as well as internal organs of dead specimens. Overall, 51 samples (14.73%) were found positive. We detected 28 seemingly novel and six previously described bat AdVs by sequencing the PCR products. The positivity rate was the highest among the guano samples of bat colonies. In phylogeny reconstructions, the AdVs detected in bats clustered roughly, but not perfectly, according to the hosts families (Vespertilionidae, Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae, Phyllostomidae and Pteropodidae). In a few cases, identical sequences were derived from animals of closely related species. On the other hand, some bat species proved to harbour more than one type of AdV. The high prevalence of infection and the large number of chiropteran species worldwide make us hypothesise that hundreds of different yet unknown AdV types might circulate in bats.
Mikova E.,University of P.J. Šafarik |
Varcholova K.,University of P.J. Šafarik |
Boldogh S.,Aggtelek National Park Directorate |
Uhrin M.,University of P.J. Šafarik |
Uhrin M.,Czech University of Life Sciences
Central European Journal of Biology | Year: 2013
We investigated the winter food of Mediterranean horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus euryale) in four winter cave roosts in southern Slovakia and northern Hungary and investigated the relationship between food and ambient temperature. The bats were active during the whole winter period and they produced excrement throughout the entire hibernation period, even when outside temperatures dropped below zero. The guano was in two forms, containing (1) prey items and (2) non-prey items. The identifiable items belonged to lepidopteran species, but only one was identified, on the basis of the genital fragments, the moth Colotois pennaria, which was the main prey species in autumn and early winter. Our results shed light on the extraordinarily high level of activity in this bat species during winter hibernation, which in temperate regions is a strategy that enables bats to survive when prey is reduced or absent. In R. euryale, the torpor in the course of hibernation is not continuous and our results help to explain how energy losses caused by bat movements are covered. © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.