Simm J.,HR Wallingford |
Phillips P.,Aggregate Industries |
Johansen M.,Sterna Shipping |
Hahn U.,MIRO German Aggregates Federation
Coasts, Marine Structures and Breakwaters 2013: From Sea to Shore - Meeting the Challenges of the Sea | Year: 2014
Considerable effort over the last 20 years has been put into the production of harmonised European Standards. Second generation standards are now starting to emerge and plans are in place for the future development of a third generation. However, in some countries knowledge of these standards and their status remains inadequate and hence their application is inconsistent and patchy, with significant engineering and legal implications. This paper firstly describes the process of standard development illustrating it with reference to the development and use of the Armourstone standard EN13383. Possible reasons for the lack of appropriate implementation of the standards are identified and the dangers of users failing to understand the changed status of standards at European law are explained. The paper concludes with suggestions for improving future practice.
Villani M.M.,Technical University of Delft |
Scarpas A.,Technical University of Delft |
de Bondt A.,Ooms Civiel bv |
Khedoe R.,Ooms Civiel bv |
Artamendi I.,Aggregate Industries
Wear | Year: 2014
Skid-resistance is one of the most important pavement surface properties with respect to driver safety. For example, the friction of asphalt concrete mixtures continuously evolves because the aggregates are subjected to polishing by rubber tires.Currently available tests for mix design optimization are focused primarily on evaluating the polishing characteristics of aggregate surfaces rather than actual AC mixtures. Factors such as aggregate gradation cannot directly be taken into account in aggregate polishing tests, and hence its effects on the friction of the overall mix are not accounted for when mixes are being designed.Using the Skid Resistance Interface Testing Device (SR-ITD®), developed for laboratory use during the European project SKIDSAFE, the evolving frictional properties of asphalt concrete mixes containing any desired combination of aggregate type, maximum size and gradation can be evaluated. The effects of the number of wheel passes and combinations of contact pressure and speed are documented.During SR-ITD testing, evolution of the surface morphology is recorded using a laser profilometer. Post-processing of the results by means of fractal analysis enables the characterization of the surface texture on the basis of three unique descriptors.By combining the variation of surface descriptors with the friction coefficient, the influence of aggregate type and gradation on the frictional response of asphalt concrete mixes can usefully be determined. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
News Article | January 19, 2016
Keeping power grid frequency in balance doesn’t necessarily require expensive, fast-responding power plants or utility-scale batteries. With the right technology, the same job can be done with supermarket refrigerators, or water pumps, or even tanks of hot asphalt -- or bitumen, as they call it in the U.K. Since 2011, London-based startup Open Energi has been integrating its control systems into flexible loads at supermarket chain Sainsbury’s, water treatment plants and pumps at northwest UK water utility United Utilities, and concrete plants of Aggregate Industries. Last month, it announced its newest partner, Tarmac -- the century-old company that owns the trademark name for the tar-and-crushed rock mixture that’s used to surface most of the world’s roadways. Before it’s turned into roads, bitumen must be kept in enormous tanks at temperatures of about 150 degrees Celsius, a task that requires a lot of electricity. But this enormous electrical load also comes with “a huge amount of thermal inertia,” Chris Kimmett, Open Energi’s commercial manager, said in an interview this month. In other words, they stay hot for a long time without electricity, losing only about 1.5 degrees Celsius over half an hour of being turned off, he said. And that makes for a very useful grid resource for Open Energi’s targeted grid service: fast-responding, short-duration dynamic frequency response for U.K. grid operator National Grid. Right now, it’s working on installing its control systems at about 200 bitumen tanks at 70 sites across the U.K., he said. Each can be turned on and off, based on Open Energi’s moment-by-moment analysis of what grid operator National Grid needs to keep its system at a stable frequency of 50 hertz. This service, known as frequency regulation in the United States, is technically challenging, requiring large-scale resources to ramp up and down within seconds. This is a much more challenging set of tasks, compared to those required from traditional demand response programs in the U.S., or the U.K.’s Short-Term Operating Reserve (STOR) program, or its new capacity markets. Frequency response in the U.K., as in the U.S., has traditionally been done by large power plants that ramp generation up and down, Kimmett said. But that’s a rather slow and inefficient way to react to quick grid frequency changes, particularly those that can arise with more and more intermittent wind and solar power coming onto the grid. Indeed, a 2015 study by Open Energi, National Grid and Cardiff University found that the startup was able to deliver full response from field-tested bitumen tanks within 2 seconds, compared to 5 to 10 seconds for a thermal generator. And compared to the inefficient (and thus greenhouse-gas-intensive) method of quickly ramping power plants up and down, demand-side flexibility is essentially carbon-free, he said. Open Energi isn’t the only company targeting demand-side resources for frequency regulation. In the United States, startup Enbala has hooked up megawatts' worth of flexible loads to bid into frequency regulation markets run by mid-Atlantic grid operator PJM and Ontario, Canada’s IESO. Other demand-response providers are starting to focus on faster-acting resources to target new opportunities beyond the traditional fields of capacity markets, which deal with slower response times. Batteries can also act much more quickly than power plants. Purpose-built, grid-scale batteries have become a significant part of PJM’s frequency regulation market, and are starting to emerge as cost-effective alternatives in new regimes being developed by Texas grid operator ERCOT, for example. But batteries also cost millions of dollars per megawatt-hour, whereas demand-side resources are already paid for. The limitation of demand-side resources is that they weren’t built to be grid-balancing agents, but rather to do very specific and valuable jobs -- move water, or heat materials, or keep food cold. Whatever flexibility they may have must be very carefully managed, to ensure that it isn’t interfering with the critical business processes involved, Kimmett said. “That’s what our secret sauce is -- taking a long list of constraints from all our sites, and turning it into dynamic demand,” Kimmett said. “We want to be invisible to the end customers, but invaluable to National Grid.” The U.K. could see a much larger market for demand-side frequency response in years to come, under National Grid’s “Power Responsive” campaign, he added. Launched last year, the campaign is pushing for demand-side resources to serve from one-third to one-half of the country’s frequency response needs, which today stand at about 2 gigawatts for a nationwide peak demand of about 45 gigawatts. Open Energi has so far taken on a long list of responsibilities to enable the industrial loads it’s signed up, he said. Those range from identifying cost-effective targets and instrumenting them to ensure their proper integration into National Grid’s market, to managing the verification and settlement of payments they receive and share with their customers. The company, founded in 1999 to target household refrigerators as grid assets and reconfigured to address industrial loads in 2008, has received financial backing, including a £5 million round in 2012 (equivalent to about $8 million at the time), from Ombu Group, a venture firm that’s backed by pension fund Invesco.
News Article | September 21, 2016
An Amido Report highlights the importance of a joined-up approach to technology across disparate departmental systems to create customer identity profiles London, U.K., 21 September 2016 – Amido, a vendor-agnostic technical consultancy specialising in assembling and integrating proven cloud technologies to improve customer data and identity management, reports that six key verticals are struggling to create customer identity profiles in a fast-paced, digitally transformed environment, despite current technological developments already invested in. CIOs and CMOs interviewed across Retail, Financial Services, Media, Automotive and Industry, Logistics and Utilities all admit that creating the holy-grail of a single customer view is of the single, most strategic importance to business development and customer retention, but aren’t realising the potential that already exists in their infrastructure and the complementary technologies they need to deploy to achieve this. Forrester Research states that 49 per cent of global decision makers place ‘improving the use of data and analytics technology as a high priority.’ However, Amido’s report finds that although the industries researched are collecting customer data to try and create personalised services, they are lacking in solutions to share and translate this data into insight due to pools of data being siloed. Alan Walsh, CEO of Amido, states: ‘Our report clearly reveals that all organisations see customer identity and creating a single customer view as a rich resource, but seem unsure about how to achieve this - even though they know that the lines between marketing and IT have blurred. Both the CIOs and CMOs need to realise that the solution is rarely a single product to answer to a complex enterprise-wide problem, meaning integration of technologies is inevitable. In most cases, the answer is a hybrid-IT approach to multiple products and some custom build. By using cloud-based solutions, verticals are able to affordably collaborate their software to ‘talk to’ each other, which will enable data-pooling across disparate parts of the organisation – once you do this, you’re on your way to creating that single customer view.’ Marketing and Technology Departments are NOT Collaborating The report finds that technology is seen as more of a business function and therefore marketing’s needs are bypassed, as is the customer’s. Creating technology best practices are essential when building an insight team with a strong skill set in data science, technology and marketing, especially when assembling a full customer view. A more joined up approach to customer data across the organisation will help to define strategic and targeted marketing campaigns, thus leading to increased personalisation of services and promotions. The CIOs and CMOS across all verticals agreed that both departments seek a greater understanding of the customer’s identity to provide a more personalised service, but without the right tools, marketing is very retrospective which is a hindrance to developing campaigns that will engage and predict the customer’s future journey and buying behaviour. Chris Gray, Director of Technology at Amido, adds: ‘Combining the expertise, knowledge and resources of Technology and Marketing departments will create a centre of excellence, one that utilises machine learning, data warehousing and customer behaviour information from multiple sources. This all creates that holy- grail, 360 view of the customer’s identity, which is the foundation needed for effective personalisation. The fact is, across all the sectors we spoke with, customer data is mainly owned by the marketing and commercial teams; but true customer identity resides in the data the customer is willing to share - and getting people to share information is a challenge. With Gartner predicting that by 2018, 50 per cent of IT and identity access management programmes will be focused on both enterprise and customer-facing infrastructures as the two spheres evolve into one, leaders need to start working towards joining up their information by collaborating their technology solutions.’ Who’s Harnessing Customer Loyalty? Breaking down the boundaries of what data customers are willing to share and combining it with the data held by organisations, creates a more cohesive view of the customer across the business and therefore the potential to provide a more personalised service – a challenge accepted by all six verticals. Leaders in the Retail and Media industries are the two that face the most online disruption and seem to thus be making more headway with customer identity management, but they are still struggling to turn a direct-to-consumer model into a loyal customer base owing to digital variety and choice; and both industries successfully use social log-in, cookies and online behaviour patterns to offer unique personalisation to its customers. A few respondents interviewed named Amazon as an excellent benchmark for personalisation and providing that ubiquitous mobile, omni-channel experience. Amazon does offer a good service and can recommend products based on previous purchases, but Alan Walsh, CEO, Amido, comments: ‘Amazon’s customer identity solution is not where they excel – its purchase recommendation is basic as information on the customers is based on what they previously bought and does not take into account anything else about that individual. A joined up identity strategy reduces spam and personalisation excellence comes when you use insight gained from multiple data sources (social profiles, email marketing, order or browsing history, customer services, transactional history, cookies, online journey etc.) to offer up products and services that customers want, when they want them and in the right channel. You can then apply machine learning to predict future behaviour and pre-empt what customers want before they know they want it. One technology product cannot do all this – it needs a combination.’ Financial services are still laggards in adopting a single customer view, yet leaders in this industry agree that this is the sector where customer identity management technology can have the most significant impact on the customer and therefore the ability to retain the business of a customer. Logistics believes that the internet of things (IoT) and analysing behaviour patterns of customer usage (such as next day delivery) will empower them to merge and mirror the services of both the physical and digital world, building contextual data alongside information they already have on the customer. Mobility and the Omni-channel All verticals accepted that mobility is ubiquitous and is thus a challenge and an opportunity when adopting policies to utilise contextual data. Customers are demanding brands to be specific to them across all channels and mobility adds an additional layer of complexity for marketing and IT leaders to address. For the Media and Logistics industries, mobility is an excellent opportunity to getting closer to the customer as location-based information smartens the services and information they offer back to their customers (advertisers for media and suppliers for logistics, for example.) But despite the opportunities of this added layer of data, the omni-channel approach has fractured organisations across all industries due to the inability to share/pool together data captured from multiple channels across an organisation. Andrew Sell, Head of Digital Marketing at Prudential UK, says: ‘We have a sophisticated Enterprise Data Warehouse that combines data from across our business, but there are still pretty big repositories of data that are not yet joined to this platform.’ Alan Walsh, Amido CEO, concludes: ‘Industries need to understand that identity is different to personalisation. Identity underpins personalisation – unless you have a complete view of the identity of your customer, how can you offer a truly personalised service? Customer identity is a huge part of experience, especially the merging of the digital and physical world as the transition between the two should be seamless. Once you get this right, it presents huge opportunities for all industries and across all channels. But you need to start with your technology first and most organisations already have the software; now you just have to make them talk to each other as digitalisation of the customer’s behaviour is not going away any time soon.’ Customer Experience Event - HOW UTILISING CUSTOMER DATA CAN INCREASE REVENUE GROWTH Join us at the Soho Hotel on Thursday October 6th 2016 where our customers and report participants will be providing insight into how, by utilising customer data and technology more effectively, they have achieved a more personalised experience and as a result, enabled consistent revenue growth by increasing customer engagement. Guest speakers include: Bob Strudwick (CTO, ASOS), Ian Cohen (Ex- CIO of JLT and now adviser) and Mark Chillingworth (report author, creator of the CIO top 100 and ex-editor of CIO UK). For more information and to request a place please visit https://www.amido.com/landing-page/are-you-making-it-personal-event/ Online resources - Full research report: https://www.amido.com/landing-page/are-you-making-it-personal/ - Read the Amido blog: https://www.amido.com/thinking/ - Follow Amido on Twitter: @WeAreAmido - Follow Amido on LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/amido About the Report Amido commissioned a piece of research into senior IT and marketing decision makers across six vertical markets (retail, media, financial services, utilities, logistics, industry and automotive) to uncover how they are utilising the ever-increasing amounts of customer data to identify their customers and personalise customer experience. The report reveals: Companies that participated: Retail - Virgin Holidays, Everest Home Improvement, N Brown, Shell Retail Financial Services - LV= Direct, NFU Mutual, Prudential UK, Brightside Insurance Industry and Automotive - Belron, Marston’s, 2 Sister’s Food Group, Logistics - Metapack, DX Media - Clifton Media Lab, Haymarket Media Group, LoopMe, Daily Mail group, Global Radio Utilities – First Utility, Northumbrian Water, Aggregate Industries About Amido Amido is a technical consultancy specialising in assembling and integrating proven cloud technologies to improve customer data and identity management. We work with brands like ASOS, CBRE and Channel 5 to remove friction from their customers’ online and mobile experiences to drive revenue and engagement. From social sign-in to smart content delivery and smooth transactions, we help brands build loyalty through customer recognition by bridging systems in a powerful and unique way, yielding real-time results for brands and their customers. Our passion is finding the right strategic mix of technology to give your company a competitive edge and your customers the best experience possible. For more information, please see https://www.amido.com/ Amido Ltd is a company registered in England and Wales. Registered number: 7203090. Registered office: 108 Weston Street, London, SE1 3QB
Artamendi I.,Aggregate Industries |
Allen B.,Aggregate Industries |
Ward C.,Aggregate Industries |
Phillips P.,Aggregate Industries
RILEM Bookseries | Year: 2012
Large differences between the coefficient of thermal contraction of mineral aggregate and binder has been associated with localised damage at the aggregate-binder interface at low temperatures. In this work, the coefficients of thermal contraction of different binders, aggregates and asphalt mixtures have been determined. Binder specimens were first produced by pouring hot bitumen into 200 x 50 x 50 mm3 moulds. The specimens were conditioned at various temperatures ranging from 10 to -20 0C. The change in length was then measured to determine thermal strains as a result of cooling. It was found that linear coefficients of thermal contraction varied between 115 and 175 x 10-6 mm/mm/0C depending on grade and type of binder. Coefficient of thermal contraction of different aggregates was also determined. Rock specimens of the same dimension as the binder specimens were cut from large rock cores. The specimens were then conditioned at different temperatures and their change in length was measured. Three types of rocks namely limestone, granite and greywacke typically used in asphalt mixtures were employed. It was found that CTC of the aggregates varied between 7 and 10 x 10-6 mm/mm/0C, thus, 10 to 25 times lower than those of the binders. The coefficient of thermal contraction of various asphalt mixtures was determined using a volumetric and a composite model. Furthermore, predicted values were compared with those determined experimentally using beam shaped asphalt specimens cut from roller compacted slabs manufactured in the laboratory. © RILEM 2012.
Pilakoutas K.,University of Sheffield |
Neocleous K.,University of Sheffield |
Angelakopoulos H.,University of Sheffield |
Koutselas K.,Aggregate Industries
Concrete (London) | Year: 2010
A European research project EU FP7 Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) EcoLanes has been undertaken to develop pavements using concrete reinforced with recycled steel tyre-cord fibers (RSTCF). Using RSTCF and industrially produced steel fibers, EcoLanes developed concretes suitable for wet consistency and RCC. Following extensive numerical and analytical work, a design framework and software were developed by UTI for use by design engineers. Analysis and design tools were developed based on the concept of long-life rigid pavements (LLRPs) made with wet/dry SFRC. Methodologies were developed for the LCA (life-cycle analysis) of LLRPs made with wet and dry SFRC. The construction of the demonstration pavements confirmed that the developed technology can be easily applied in practice.
Artamendi I.,Aggregate Industries |
Phillips P.,Aggregate Industries |
Allen B.,Aggregate Industries |
Woodward D.,University of Ulster
Airfield and Highway Pavement 2013: Sustainable and Efficient Pavements - Proceedings of the 2013 Airfield and Highway Pavement Conference | Year: 2013
This paper considers the development of proprietary asphalt surfacing properties used in the United Kingdom due to trafficking. The project aimed to determine whether asphalt mixes made with lower PSV aggregate in smaller nominal-sized asphalt mixes could provide adequate levels of in-situ performance compared with the traditional use of higher PSV aggregate and 14-mm nominal-sized mixes. It compared SCRIM and GripTester data from full-scale road trials with laboratory Wehner Schulze laboratory data measured using asphalt laid at the road trial. The proprietary mixes were 14-mm, 10-mm, and 6-mm maximum aggregate size made with porphyry and quartz granite aggregate. Based on their PSV these aggregate sources would typically not be used on heavily trafficked roads in the UK. Surface texture was monitored using laser sensor during SCRIM assessment. In-situ testing found good levels of skid resistance for all mixes over the last four years since installation. The optimum nominal mix size was 10 mm. The 14-mm mixes had a noticeable drop in texture depth whereas the smaller nominal size mixes remained relatively unchanged. The Wehner Schulze was found to rank the mixes similar to in-situ measurement in contrast to PSV, which did not. A model was developed to predict in-situ skid resistance based on Wehner Schulze data. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Villani M.,Technical University of Delft |
Artamendi I.,Aggregate Industries |
Kane M.,Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees |
Scarpas A.,Technical University of Delft
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2011
This research examines the hysteresis friction of a sliding elastomer on various types of stone surfaces. The hysteresis friction is calculated with an analytical model that considers the energy spent by the local deformation of the rubber due to surface asperities of the stone surface. By establishing the fractal character of the stone surfaces, one can account for the contribution to rubber friction of stone roughness at different length scales. A high-resolution surface profilometer is used to calculate the three main surface descriptors and the minimal length scale that can contribute to hysteresis friction. The rubber is treated as a Zener viscoelastic material model. Modeling of the contact between the elastomer and the stone surface is based on the analytical model of Klüppel and Heinrich, which is a generalization of the Greenwood and Williamson theory of contact between spheres that are statistically distributed about a mean plane. The results show that this method can be used in order to characterize in an elegant manner the surface morphology of various stone surfaces and to quantify the friction coefficient of sliding rubber as a function of surface roughness, load, and speed.
Artamendi I.,Aggregate Industries |
Allen B.,Aggregate Industries |
Phillips P.,Aggregate Industries
Bituminous Mixtures and Pavements VI - Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Bituminous Mixtures and Pavements, ICONFBMP 2015 | Year: 2015
This study evaluates the properties of high modulus asphalt mixtures and assesses their potential for use as high quality structural layers on the UK trunk road network. High modulus mixtures, first developed in France and used now in the UK, are considered long life and durable structural materials. These mixtures are, however, susceptible to thermal damage, particularly under extreme weather conditions. In order to minimise the risk of thermal damage in high modulus mixtures, the use of sof ter binders has been investigated. Material properties evaluated included, workability, water sensitivity, deformation resistance, stiffness, and fatigue and fracture resistance. Analytical pavement design for a typical pavement structure incorporating these materials was also carried out. Design stiffness values were determined at the standard conditions for UK pavement design, i. e. 20◦C and loading frequency of 5 Hz. Fatigue properties of the mixtures obtained experimentally using the four-point bending test were also incorporated in the analysis. It was found that the use of softer binders in high modulus mixtures have some of the benefits associated to these type of mixtures in terms of deformation and fatigue resistance. Also, pavement thickness can be considerably reduced when these mixtures are used instead of a conventional material. Alternatively, for a typical pavement thickness the used of these materials can extend the life of the pavement beyond that of a standard material. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, London.
News Article | April 26, 2016
A U.K. initiative from Sainsbury’s, United Utilities and Aggregate Industries could make the local power grid smarter and prepare it for more renewable power.