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Armstrong D.M.F.O.,Universidade Sao Francisco | Figueiredo R.C.B.Q.,Research Center Aggeu Magalhaes | Florentino J.E.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Fox-Talbot K.,Johns Hopkins University | And 4 more authors.
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira | Year: 2013

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of sildenafil citrate (SC) on skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in rats. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were randomized into three groups: vehicle-treated control (CTG), sildenafil citrate-treated (SCG), and sham group (SG). CTG and SCG had femoral artery occluded for 6 hours. Saline or 1 mg/kg of SC was given 5.5 hours after occlusion. SG had a similar procedure without artery occlusion. Soleus muscle samples were acquired 4 or 24h after the reperfusion. Immunohistochemistry caspase-3 analysis was used to estimate apoptosis using the apoptotic ratio (computed as positive/negative cells). Wilcoxon rank-sum or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess differences among groups. RESULTS: Eighteen animals were included in the 4h reperfusion groups and 21 animals in the 24h reperfusion groups. The mean apoptotic ratio was 0.18±0.1 for the total cohort; 0.14±0.06 for the 4h reperfusion groups and 0.19±0.08 for the 24h groups (p<0.05). The SCG had lower caspase-3 ratio compared to the control groups at the 24h reperfusion time point (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Sildenafil citrate administration after the onset of the ischemic injury reduces IR-induced cellular damage in skeletal muscle in this rat hindlimb ischemia model.


de Souza Freitas M.T.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Rios-Velasquez C.M.,Instituto Leonidas e Maria Deane Fiocruz Amazonia | da Silva L.G.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Lima Costa C.R.,Federal University of Pernambuco | And 4 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2016

In South America, Lutzomyia umbratilis is the main vector of Leishmania guyanensis, one of the species involved in the transmission of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. In Brazil, L. umbratilis has been recorded in the Amazon region, and an isolated population has been identified in the state of Pernambuco, Northeastern region. This study assessed the phylogeographic structure of three allopatric Brazilian populations of L. umbratilis. Samples of L. umbratilis were collected from Rio Preto da Eva (north of the Amazon River, Amazonas), from Manacapuru (south of the Amazon River), and from the isolated population in Recife, Pernambuco state. These samples were processed to obtain sequences of the period gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of two distinct monophyletic clades: one clade comprised of the Recife and Rio Preto da Eva samples, and one clade comprised of the Manacapuru samples. Comparing the Manacapuru population with the Recife and Rio Preto da Eva populations revealed high indices of interpopulational divergence. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that geographical distance and environmental differences have not modified the ancestral relationship shared by the Recife and Rio Preto da Eva populations. Genetic similarities suggest that, in evolutionary terms, these populations are more closely related to each other than to the Manacapuru population. These results confirm the existence of an L. umbratilis species complex composed of at least two incipient species. © 2015 The Authors.


De Souza Freitas M.T.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Rios-Velasquez C.M.,Instituto Leonidas e Maria Deane Fiocruz Amazonia | Costa C.R.L.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Figueiredo C.A.S.,Federal University of Pernambuco | And 6 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015

Background: In South America, Lutzomyia umbratilis is the main vector of Leishmania guyanensis, one of the species involved in the transmission of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. In Brazil, L. umbratilis has been recorded in the Amazon region, and in the state of Pernambuco, Northeastern region, where an isolated population has been identified. This study assessed the phylogeographic structure and size and shape differences of the wing of three Brazilian populations. Methods: Samples of L. umbratilis were collected from Rio Preto da Eva (north of the Amazon River, Amazonas), from Manacapuru (south of the Amazon River), and from the isolated population in Recife, Pernambuco state. These samples were processed to obtain sequences of the Cytochrome Oxidase I mitochondrial gene. Geometrics morphometry analysis of the right wing shape of the three populations was made using discriminate canonical analysis. Results: Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of two distinct monophyletic clades: one clade comprised of the Recife and Rio Preto da Eva samples, and the other clade comprised of the Manacapuru samples. Comparing the Manacapuru population with the Recife and Rio Preto da Eva populations generated high indices of interpopulational divergence. Geometric morphometry analysis indicated two distinct groups between the studied populations. Canonical variate analysis of wing shape indicated that Rio Preto da Eva population is significantly closer to Recife population, and both populations were genetically distant from Manacapuru. Conclusion: The polymorphic sites and geometric morphometry analysis indicate that the distance, lack of continuity and environmental differences have not modified the ancestral relationship between Recife and Rio Preto da Eva populations. The genetic and morphological similarities shared by the Recife and Rio Preto da Eva populations suggest that these populations are more closely related evolutionarily. These results confirm the existence of an L. umbratilis species complex in the North and Northeast regions. © 2015 de Souza Freitas et al.


Fuchs S.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Fuchs S.C.,Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development | Alencastro P.R.,Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development | Ikeda M.L.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 16 more authors.
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2013

Cardiovascular disease has emerged as a crescent problem among HIV-infected population. This study aimed to determine the 10-year risk of coronary heart disease using the Framingham risk score among HIV-infected patients from three regions of Brazil. This is a pooled analysis of three cohort studies, which enrolled 3,829 individuals, 59% were men, 66% had white skin color, and mean age 39.0 ± 9.9 years. Comparisons among regions showed that there were marked differences in demographic, socioeconomic, clinical, and HIV-related characteristics. Prevalence of Framingham score ≥10 was 4.5% in the Southern, 4.2% in the Midwest, and 3.9% in the Northeast of Brazil. The Framingham score ≥10 was similar between regions for males, patients aged ≥60 years, with obesity, central obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Women were three times more likely to have coronary heart disease in 10 years than men. Hypertension and diabetes increased more than four times the risk of coronary heart disease, followed by central obesity, obesity, and prehypertension. The use of antiretroviral agents and time since HIV diagnosis were not risk factors for coronary artery disease in 10 years. In conclusion, hypertension and diabetes are the strongest independent predictors of 10-year risk of coronary heart disease among HIV-infected population. © 2013 Sandra C. Fuchs et al.


Conrado T.,University of Pernambuco | De Barros Miranda-Filho D.,University of Pernambuco | De Alencar Ximenes R.A.,University of Pernambuco | De Alencar Ximenes R.A.,Federal University of Pernambuco | And 7 more authors.
Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care | Year: 2011

The effects of HIV/AIDS and antiretroviral drugs on vitamin D metabolism are still mostly unknown. This was a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and identify its association with the clinical and metabolic parameters among 214 HIV-positive female patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Brazil. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (< 30 ng/ml) was 40.65% (87/214). Hypercholesterolemia, high LDL-c, duration of use of current antiretroviral regimen, hypertriglyceridemia, body mass index, age, hypertension, time with AIDS ≥ 10 years and hyperglycemia were selected for multivariate analysis (p < 0.20). After this analysis, hypercholesterolemia and use of current antiretroviral regimen ≥ 3 years remained independently associated with vitamin D deficiency. There was an inverse statistically significant correlation between total cholesterol and serum 25(OH)D levels. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was found among HIV-positive women on ART and was independently associated with its prolonged use and with hypercholesterolemia.

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