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Vercammen Y.,University of Antwerp | Van Luppen J.,Agfa Materials | Van Roost C.,Agfa Materials | De Mondt R.,Agfa Materials | And 2 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

Molecular depth profiling is needed to develop high-tech materials optimised to the μm or even up to the nm scale. Recent progress in time-of-flight static secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-S-SIMS) offers perspectives to molecular depth profiling. However, at this moment, the methodology is not yet capable to deal with a range of materials science applications because of the limited depth range, the loss of intensity in the subsurface and the loss of depth resolution at large distances from the original surface. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to develop a complementary approach for the molecular 3D analysis at large depth, using a combination of ultra-low angle microtomy (ULAM) and surface analysis of the sectioned material with ToF-S-SIMS. Single inkjet dots with a diameter of 100 μm and height of 22 μm on a PET substrate have been used as a test system for the methodology. It is demonstrated that the use of a diamond knife allows the molecular composition and distribution of components within the microscopic feature to be probed with a lateral resolution of 300 nm. Hence the methodology approaches the physical limit for ion imaging of organic components with local concentrations in the % range. In practice, the achievable depth resolution with ULAM-S-SIMS is ultimately limited by the surface roughness of the section. Careful optimisation of the ULAM step has resulted in a surface roughness within 6 nm (R a value) at a depth of 21 μm. This offers perspective to achieve 3D analysis with a depth resolution as good as 18 nm at such a large distance from the surface. Furthermore, the ULAM-S-SIMS approach is applicable to materials unamenable to ion beam erosion. However, the method is limited to dealing with, for instance, Si or glass substrates that cannot be sectioned with a microtomy knife. Furthermore, sufficient adhesion between stacked layers or between the coating and substrate is required. However, it is found that the approach is applicable to a wide variety of industrially important (multi)layers of polymers on a polymer substrate. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Vercammen Y.,University of Antwerp | De Mondt R.,University of Antwerp | Van Luppen J.,Agfa Materials | Vangaever F.,Agfa Materials | Van Vaeck L.,University of Antwerp
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

Development of sustainable materials requires methods capable of probing the molecular composition of samples not only at the surface but also in depth. Static secondary ion mass spectrometry (S-SIMS) characterises the distribution of organic and inorganic compounds at the surface. Ultra-low-angle microtomy (ULAM) has been studied as an alternative or complementing method to the molecular depth profiling with, e.g. C 60 + projectiles. Acrylate-based multilayers relevant to industrial inkjet printing have been sectioned at a cutting angle below 1°. In this way, analysis of the section over a distance of 1 μm allows a depth range in the order of a few nm in the original sample to be achieved. Adequate procedures to optimise the ULAM step and minimise or control the cutting artefacts have been developed. The combination of ULAM with S-SIMS has allowed a depth resolution of 10 nm to be obtained for components at a distance of 35 μm from the surface. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

De Mondt R.,Agfa Materials
European Coatings Journal | Year: 2013

Oemand for UV inkjet printing of packaging is increasing, especially in the food, beverage and pharmaceutical markets where low migration (LM) inks are required. However, inkjet inks must have very low viscosity, whereas other LM inks are often based on high viscosity materials. The formulation of LM inkjet inks is discussed, using a highly reactive monomer, a dendritic co-initiator and polymerisable photoinitiators.

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