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Del Gatto A.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Colture Industriali | Melilli M.G.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Forest Systems In the Mediterranean | Raccuia S.A.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Forest Systems In the Mediterranean | Pieri S.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Colture Industriali | And 6 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products

The Extravalore project aims to give added value to oilseed crops, considering them also for producing multiple products with the same economic value and being interesting for the market thanks to their various utilizations.An evaluation of the main cultivars of Brassica napus subsp. oleifera and Brassica carinata has been performed within the project, analyzing them in three Italian locations with different climatic conditions (Palazzolo dello Stella - North Italy, Osimo - Central Italy, Cassibile - South Italy) to assay their adaptability and production potential.During the 2010-2013 period, 43 varieties of rapeseed were evaluated, but only 13 of them for all the period considered; moreover, also 4 varieties of B. carinata were tested.The seed yields of tested cultivars of rapeseed varied a lot among locations, depending also by the seasonal trend. Central Italy was the less disadvantaged by climatic conditions: on average, it was reached a seed yield of 4tha-1, a theoretical oil production of 1.63tha-1 and more than 8tha-1 of crop residues. In Northern and Southern Italy, if compared with Central Italy values, the seed yields were both lower than 30% and theoretical oil productions lower than 60%; moreover, crop residues in Northern Italy were 12% lower than in Central Italy while in Southern Italy 65% lower. The agronomic behavior of varieties differed a lot among the three experimental areas: DK Expower was the best at North; Albatros, Artoga, Exagone and Excalibur in Central Italy; Excalibur, Zoom and PR46W14 at South Italy but none of them reached a seed yield of 2tha-1.Concerning B. carinata, the cultivars did not give good productions in any of the experimental areas, mainly because of the low oil content in the seeds. Even in Central Italy, where the best results were registered, the seed yield was on average 28% lower than in rapeseed and oil production 10% lower; the crop residues were double than rapeseed. In any case, the valorization of the crop residues is important with a wide range of possible utilization from the direct energetic use to the biochemicals extraction with consequent environmental advantages due to the substitution of dedicated or fossil feedstock with crop residues. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Del Gatto A.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Colture Industriali | Mengarelli C.,Marche Polytechnic University | Foppa Pedretti E.,Marche Polytechnic University | Duca D.,Marche Polytechnic University | And 5 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products

Currently the biodiesel chain is promoted by the European energy policy. For the Italian scenario the sunflower is one of the most important crop to be considered for biodiesel production but the chain is not fully profitable. This problem could be solved with the increase of farm incomes through a proper valorization of by-products. From this point of view the oilseed crop is not considered only for oil production but also for producing multiple products with the same economic value. This is the main inspiring concept of the Extravalore project. The sub-project "Raw Materials" investigated about the possible influence of different agro-technics performed in three distinct geographical environments (Northern, Central and Southern Italy) on the characteristics of by-products obtained from sunflower crop.A national net of experimental tests was set during the 2010-2013 period in order to evaluate the adaptability and the potential production of high oleic sunflower hybrids. 7 seed companies supplied the 20 genotypes assessed in total (18 high oleic hybrids and 2 as control), 11 of them were evaluated all the three years.Achene yields of tested high oleic hybrids were extremely variable: from 2.05tha-1 to 4.04tha-1 in Northern Italy, from 2.50tha-1 to 4.24tha-1 in Central Italy and from 2.09tha-1 to 2.68tha-1 in Southern Italy. For this reason, it was necessary a precise characterization of varieties before their cultivation. The cultivar screening showed general difficulty for high oleic hybrids to reach the performances of achene and oil yields of the conventional ones. In particular, LG55.57HO and PR64H31 resulted the best high oleic cultivars for Northern Italy; many of the high oleic tested cultivars performed well for Central Italy and also for Southern Italy but with a higher variability. The highest potential production was registered in Central Italy; Northern Italy gave decreased but similar results, despite the different latitude; in Southern Italy the productions were 20-30% lower, even with the irrigation support. All high oleic tested cultivars showed oleic acid content in lipid fraction always above the 84% in Central Italy, meaning a stability of the character, very important for the biodiesel production. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Chabirand A.,ANSES Plant Health Laboratory | Jouen E.,University of Reunion Island | Pruvost O.,University of Reunion Island | Chiroleu F.,University of Reunion Island | And 17 more authors.
Plant Pathology

Efficient control of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae, the causal agent of anthurium bacterial blight, requires sensitive and reliable diagnostic tools. The European standard EN ISO 16140:2003 has been followed to compare a nested PCR assay (N-PCR) to a reference method (isolation and serological identification of bacterial colonies) and to other alternative serological detection methods. The evaluation was performed in two steps: a comparative study and a collaborative study involving 15 European laboratories. Although inclusivity was maximal (100%) for all methods, a maximal exclusivity was obtained only with N-PCR followed by an enzymatic restriction digestion of the amplicons. Exclusivity indices of 90·6, 88·7 and 47·2% were found for indirect ELISA, immunofluorescence and double antibody sandwich ELISA, respectively. An exclusivity of 92·5% was obtained with the reference method, further increased to 100% if pathogenicity tests were performed as a supplemental assay. The best level of sensitivity (relative detection level) was obtained with the reference method followed by the N-PCR assay. The N-PCR performance in terms of relative accuracy, accordance and concordance was very similar to that of the reference method. Moreover, N-PCR had undeniable advantages compared to the reference method (less labour-intensive and less time-consuming). In addition, post-test probabilities of infection were calculated to select the most appropriate detection scheme related to the prevalence of the pathogen. The N-PCR assay has since been included in a revised version of the EPPO detection protocol. © 2013 British Society for Plant Pathology. Source

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