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Sofi F.,Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation | Sofi F.,University of Florence | Sofi F.,Regional Agency of Nutrition | Valecchi D.,Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Internal Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective. The relationship between physical activity and cognitive function is intriguing but controversial. We performed a systematic meta-analysis of all the available prospective studies that investigated the association between physical activity and risk of cognitive decline in nondemented subjects. Methods. We conducted an electronic literature search through MedLine, Embase, Google Scholar, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and bibliographies of retrieved articles up to January 2010. Studies were included if they analysed prospectively the association between physical activity and cognitive decline in nondemented subjects. Results. After the review process, 15 prospective studies (12 cohorts) were included in the final analysis. These studies included 33816 nondemented subjects followed for 1-12years. A total of 3210 patients showed cognitive decline during the follow-up. The cumulative analysis for all the studies under a random-effects model showed that subjects who performed a high level of physical activity were significantly protected (-38%) against cognitive decline during the follow-up (hazard ratio (HR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-0.70; P < 0.00001). Furthermore, even analysis of low-to-moderate level exercise also showed a significant protection (-35%) against cognitive impairment (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.57-0.75; P < 0.00001). Conclusion. This is the first meta-analysis to evaluate the role of physical activity on cognitive decline amongst nondemented subjects. The present results suggest a significant and consistent protection for all levels of physical activity against the occurrence of cognitive decline. © 2010 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine. Source


Sofi F.,Centro S Maria Agli Ulivi | Sofi F.,University of Florence | Sofi F.,Regional Agency of Nutrition | Cesari F.,Centro S Maria Agli Ulivi | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology | Year: 2014

Objective: Increasing evidence suggests an association between insomnia and cardiovascular disease. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of all the available prospective studies that investigated the association between insomnia and risk of developing and/or dying from cardiovascular disease. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Methods: We conducted an electronic literature search through MedLine, Embase, Google Scholar, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and bibliographies of retrieved articles up to December 2011. Studies were included if they were prospective, had assessment of insomnia or sleep complaints at baseline, evaluated subjects free of cardiovascular disease at baseline and measured the association between insomnia and risk of developing and/or dying from cardiovascular disease. Results: After the review process 13 prospective studies were included in the final analysis. These studies included 122,501 subjects followed for a time ranging from three to 20 years. A total of 6332 cardiovascular events occurred during the follow-up. Insomnia was assessed through questionnaire and defined as either difficulty of initiating or maintaining sleep or presence of restless, disturbed nights. The cumulative analysis for all the studies under a random-effects model showed that insomnia determined an increased risk (+45%) of developing or dying from cardiovascular disease during the follow-up (relative risk 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.291.62; p≥0.00001), with no evidence of heterogeneity across the studies (2: 19%; p0.14). Conclusion: Insomnia is associated with an increased risk of developing and/or dying from cardiovascular disease. © 2012 The European Society of Cardiology. Source


Giovannelli L.,University of Florence | Pitozzi V.,University of Florence | Luceri C.,University of Florence | Giannini L.,University of Florence | And 13 more authors.
European Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

Purpose: Epidemiological studies suggest that a moderate consumption of wine is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases and with a reduced mortality for all causes, possibly due to increased antioxidant defences. The present intervention study was undertaken to evaluate the in vivo effects of wine polyphenols on gene expression in humans, along with their supposed antioxidant activity. Methods: Blood haemorheology and platelet function were also evaluated. In order to avoid interferences from alcohol, we used de-alcoholised wine (DAW) with different polyphenol content. A randomised cross-over trial of high-proanthocyanidin (PA) red DAW (500 mL/die, PA dose = 7 mg/kg b.w.) vs. low-PA rosé DAW (500 mL/die, PA dose = 0.45 mg/kg) was conducted in 21 post-menopausal women in Florence, Italy. Oxidative DNA damage by the comet assay and gene expression by microarray was measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes, collected during the study period. Blood samples were also collected for the evaluation of haematological, haemostatic, haemorheological, and inflammatory parameters. Results: The results of the present study provide evidence that consumption of substantial amounts of de-alcoholised wine for 1 month does not exert a protective activity towards oxidative DNA damage, nor modifies significantly the gene expression profile of peripheral lymphocytes, whereas it shows blood-fluidifying actions, expressed as a significant decrease in blood viscosity. However, this effect does not correlate with the dosage of polyphenols of the de-alcoholised wine. Conclusions: More intervention studies are needed to provide further evidence of the health-protective effects of wine proanthocyanidins. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Sofi F.,University of Florence | Sofi F.,Regional Agency of Nutrition | Buccioni A.,University of Florence | Cesari F.,University of Florence | And 8 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2010

Background and aim: Some studies recently reported a favourable effect for cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on plasma lipoprotein profile of healthy subjects. Aim of this crossover intervention study was to evaluate the influence of a short-term dietary intake of a cheese derived from sheep's milk naturally rich in CLA on several atherosclerotic biomarkers, in comparison with a commercially available cheese. Methods and results: Ten subjects (6 F; 4 M) with a median age of 51.5 followed for 10 weeks a diet containing 200 g/week of cheese naturally rich in CLA (intervention period) and for the same period a diet containing a commercially available cheese of the same quantity (placebo period). Consumption of the dairy product naturally rich in cis-9, trans-11 CLA determined a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in inflammatory parameters such as interleukin-6 (pre: 8.08 ± 1.57 vs. post: 4.58 ± 0.94 pg/mL), interleukin-8 (pre: 45.02 ± 5.82 vs. post: 28.59 ± 2.64 pg/mL), and tumour necrosis factor-α (pre: 53.58 ± 25.67 vs. post: 32.09 ± 17.42 pg/mL) whereas no significant differences in the placebo period were observed. With regard to haemorheological parameters, the test period significantly ameliorated erythrocytes' filtration rate (pre: 7.61 ± 0.71% vs. post: 9.12 ± 0.97%; p = 0.03) with respect to the placebo period. Moreover, a reduction in the extent of platelet aggregation, induced by arachidonic acid [pre: 87.8 ± 1.76% vs. post: 77.7 ± 3.56%; p = 0.04] was observed during the test period in comparison with the placebo period. Conclusions: Dietary short-term intake of the tested dairy product naturally rich in cis-9, trans-11 CLA appeared to cause favourable biochemical changes of atherosclerotic markers. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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