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Fowler B.A.,Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ATSDR
EXS | Year: 2012

Over the last 30 years, the field of biomarkers has greatly expanded as early and specific endpoints for monitoring cellular responses to various disease states and exposures to drugs and chemical agents. They have enjoyed some success as predictors of health outcomes for a number of clinical diseases, but the application to chemical exposure risk assessments has been more limited. Biomarkers may be classified into categories of markers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility. Currently, "omics" biomarkers (i.e., genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic/metabonomic) are the major classes of biomarkers under development. These markers represent a continuum of cellular responses to drug or chemical exposures and provide linkages to mechanisms of cell injury/cell death or carcinogenic transformation. On the other hand, translation and application of these biomarkers for risk assessment has been limited due to validation and interpretation issues that need to be addressed in order for these potentially extremely valuable endpoints to reach their full potential as predictive tools for public health. This short chapter will briefly review these three "omics" biomarker classes and examine some validation/translation aspects needed in order for them to reach their full potential and acceptance as valuable tools for application to risk assessment.

Feroe A.G.,Bowdoin College | Attanasio R.,Georgia State University | Scinicariello F.,Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ATSDR
Environmental Research | Year: 2016

Acrolein is a dietary and environmental pollutant that has been associated in vitro to dysregulate glucose transport. We investigated the association of urinary acrolein metabolites N-acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl)-. l-cysteine (3-HPMA) and N-acetyl-S-(carboxyethyl)-. l-cysteine (CEMA) and their molar sum (∑acrolein) with diabetes using data from investigated 2027 adults who participated in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). After excluding participants taking insulin or other diabetes medication we, further, investigated the association of the compounds with insulin resistance (n=850), as a categorical outcome expressed by the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR>2.6). As secondary analyses, we investigated the association of the compounds with HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, fasting insulin and fasting plasma glucose. The analyses were performed using urinary creatinine as independent variable in the models, and, as sensitivity analyses, the compounds were used as creatinine corrected variables. Diabetes as well as insulin resistance (defined as HOMA-IR>2.6) were positively associated with the 3-HPMA, CEMA and ∑Acrolein with evidence of a dose-response relationship (p<0.05). The highest 3rd and 4th quartiles of CEMA compared to the lowest quartile were significantly associated with higher HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and fasting insulin with a dose-response relationship. The highest 3rd quartile of 3-HPMA and ∑Acrolein were positively and significantly associated with HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and fasting insulin. These results suggest a need of further studies to fully understand the implications of acrolein with type 2 diabetes and insulin. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Inc.

Ruckart P.,Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ATSDR
Journal of Medical Toxicology | Year: 2011

Background: While pesticides and agricultural chemicals are used to increase crop production and to reduce the spread of disease, their toxic nature also has the potential to threaten human health. Releases of pesticides and agricultural chemicals have resulted in human illness and death. This analysis examines releases of pesticides and agricultural chemicals and their associated injuries captured by the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system from 2003-2007. Methods: Simple descriptive statistics are presented. Comparisons were made to data from all HSEES events when possible. Results: Analysis of the data shows that farm workers are at particular risk for injury and that the most frequent months for releases of pesticides and agricultural chemicals were the spring planting months of April through June. Releases of pesticides and agricultural chemicals occurred more often during transport, had higher frequencies of patient decontamination associated with them, and lower frequencies of evacuation and shelter-in place orders compared with all HSEES events. Conclusion: Since exposures are precipitated by behavioral and environmental factors, especially in occupational settings, future interventions targeting employers, and transporters of agricultural chemicals, as well as physicians, are recommended. These interventions should be customized to fit local conditions. © 2011 American College of Medical Toxicology.

Bove F.J.,Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ATSDR | Ruckart P.Z.,Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ATSDR | Maslia M.,ATSDR | Larson T.C.,Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ATSDR
Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source | Year: 2014

Background: Two drinking water systems at U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina were contaminated with solvents during 1950s-1985. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study of Marine and Naval personnel who began service during 1975-1985 and were stationed at Camp Lejeune or Camp Pendleton, California during this period. Camp Pendleton's drinking water was uncontaminated. Mortality follow-up was 1979-2008. Standardized Mortality Ratios were calculated using U.S. mortality rates as reference. We used survival analysis to compare mortality rates between Camp Lejeune (N = 154,932) and Camp Pendleton (N = 154,969) cohorts and assess effects of cumulative exposures to contaminants within the Camp Lejeune cohort. Models estimated monthly contaminant levels at residences. Confidence intervals (CIs) indicated precision of effect estimates. Results: There were 8,964 and 9,365 deaths respectively, in the Camp Lejeune and Camp Pendleton cohorts. Compared to Camp Pendleton, Camp Lejeune had elevated mortality hazard ratios (HRs) for all cancers (HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.20), kidney cancer (HR = 1.35, 95% CI: 0.84, 2.16), liver cancer (HR = 1.42, 95% CI: 0.92, 2.20), esophageal cancer (HR = 1.43 95% CI: 0.85, 2.38), cervical cancer (HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 0.24, 7.32), Hodgkin lymphoma (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 0.71, 3.06), and multiple myeloma (HR = 1.68, 95% CI: 0.76, 3.72). Within the Camp Lejeune cohort, monotonic categorical cumulative exposure trends were observed for kidney cancer and total contaminants (HR, high cumulative exposure = 1.54, 95% CI: 0.63, 3.75; log 10 β = 0.06, 95% CI: -0.05, 0.17), Hodgkin lymphoma and trichloroethylene (HR, high cumulative exposure = 1.97, 95% CI: 0.55, 7.03; β = 0.00005, 95% CI: -0.00003, 0.00013) and benzene (HR, high cumulative exposure = 1.94, 95% CI: 0.54, 6.95; β = 0.00203, 95% CI: -0.00339, 0.00745). Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) had HR = 2.21 (95% CI: 0.71, 6.86) at high cumulative vinyl chloride exposure but a non-monotonic exposure-response relationship (β = 0.0011, 95% CI: 0.0002, 0.0020). Conclusion: The study found elevated HRs at Camp Lejeune for several causes of death including cancers of the kidney, liver, esophagus, cervix, multiple myeloma, Hodgkin lymphoma and ALS. CIs were wide for most HRs. Because <6% of the cohort had died, long-term follow-up would be necessary to comprehensively assess effects of drinking water exposures at the base. © 2014 Bove et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Scinicariello F.,Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ATSDR | Scinicariello F.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Buser M.C.,Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ATSDR
Psychological Medicine | Year: 2015

Background. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk of depression and several studies have noted an association between tobacco smoke and depression. Cadmium is a neurotoxicant and the main source of non-occupational exposure is tobacco smoke. Method. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from 2892 young adult (aged 20-39 years) participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010. Multivariate logistic regressions, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, poverty income ratio (PIR), obesity, alcohol intake, blood lead (BPb) and smoking status, were used to analyze the association between blood cadmium (BCd) and depressive symptoms, as determined by the score on the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results. Individuals in the highest BCd quartile had higher odds of having depressive symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 2.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.84-4.25] than those in the lowest BCd quartile. Smoking status, but not BPb, was statistically significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Stratification by smoking status found that BCd was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in both non-smokers (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.12-7.58) and current smokers (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.13-6.42). Conclusions. This is the first study to report an association between BCd levels and depressive symptoms using a nationally representative sample. The association of cadmium with depressive symptoms was independent of smoking status. If this association is further confirmed, the continued efforts at reducing cadmium exposures, mainly through tobacco smoking cessation programs, may decrease the incidence of depression. Copyright © 2014 Cambridge University Press.

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