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Science and, Singapore

Lin F.,Nanjing Medical University | Lin F.,National University of Singapore | Li Z.,National University of Singapore | Hua Y.,Zhejiang University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Expert Review of Proteomics | Year: 2016

Most recently approved anti-cancer drugs by the US FDA are targeted therapeutic agents and this represents an important trend for future anticancer therapy. Unlike conventional chemotherapy that rarely considers individual differences, it is crucial for targeted therapies to identify the beneficial subgroup of patients for the treatment. Currently, genomics and transcriptomics are the major omic analytics used in studies of drug response prediction. However, proteomic profiling excels both in its advantages of directly detecting an instantaneous dynamic of the whole proteome, which contains most current diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. Moreover, proteomic profiling improves understanding of the mechanism for drug resistance and helps finding optimal combination therapy. This article reviews the recent success of applications of proteomic analytics in predicting the response to targeted anticancer therapeutics, and discusses the potential avenues and pitfalls of proteomic platforms and techniques used most in the field. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Ow G.S.,Agency for Science and Technology | Kuznetsov V.A.,National University of Singapore | Kuznetsov V.A.,Agency for Science and Technology | Kuznetsov V.A.,Nanyang Technological University | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Translational Research | Year: 2015

An iTRAQ-based tandem mass spectrometry approach was employed to relatively quantify proteins in the membrane proteome of eleven gastric cancer cell lines relative to a denominator non-cancer gastric epithelial cell line HFE145. Of the 882 proteins detected, 57 proteins were found to be upregulated with > 1.3-fold change in at least 6 of the 11 cell lines. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that these proteins are significantly associated with cancer, cell growth and proliferation, death, survival and cell movement. The catalogue of membrane proteins presented that are potential regulators/effectors of gastric cancer progression has implications in cancer therapy. DLAT, a subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, was selected as a candidate protein for further studies as its function in gastric cancer has yet to be established. SiRNA studies supported a role of DLAT in gastric cancer cell proliferation and carbohydrate metabolism, reprogramming of which is a hallmark of cancer. Our study contributes to recent interest and discussion in cancer energetics and related phenomena such as the Warburg and Reverse Warburg effects. Future mechanistic studies should lead to the elucidation of the mode of action of DLAT in human gastric cancer and establish DLAT as a viable drug target. © 2015 E-Century Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved.

Dan Y.Y.,National University of Singapore | Lim S.G.,National University of Singapore | Lim S.G.,Agency for Science and Technology | Lim S.G.,National University Hospital Singapore
Gastroenterology Clinics of North America | Year: 2015

HCV in the East is a complex scenario with prevalence rates of 0.5% to as high as 4.7%, and variable distributions of genotypes, with a dominance of genotype 1b in East Asia, genotype 3 in South Asia and South East Asia, and genotype 6 in Indochina. Approvals for the new oral directing antiviral agents (DAAs), in the East have been very slow, but ultimately will be achieved by 2019, consequently, pegylated interferon and ribavirin are still widely used. Nonetheless the main issues are the problems of screening and linkage to management, and the considerable barriers to access HCV care. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Lim S.G.,National University of Singapore | Lim S.G.,Agency for Science and Technology | Dan Y.Y.,National University of Singapore
Korean Journal of Internal Medicine | Year: 2015

The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Asia is 0.5% to 4.7%, with three different genotypes predominating, depending on the geographic region: genotype 1b in East Asia, genotype 3 in South and Southeast Asia, and genotype 6 in Indochina. Official approval for direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) in Asia lags significantly behind that in the West, such that in most countries the mainstay of therapy is still pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PR). Because the interleukin-28B genetic variant, associated with a high sustained virologic response (SVR), is common in Asians, this treatment is still acceptable in Asian patients with HCV infections. A roadmap for HCV therapy that starts with PR and takes into account those DAAs already approved in some Asian countries can provide guidance as to the best strategies for management, particularly of genotype 1 and 3 infections, based on SVR rates. Sofosbuvir and PR are likely to be the initial therapies for genotype 1 and 3 disease, although in the former these drugs may be suboptimal in patients with cirrhosis (62% SVR) and the extension of treatment to 24 weeks may be required. For difficult to treat genotype 3 infections in treatment-experienced patients with cirrhosis, a combination of sofosbuvir and PR result in an 83% SVR and is, therefore, currently the optimal treatment regimen. Treatment failure is best avoided since data on rescue therapies for DAA failure are still incomplete. © 2015 The Korean Association of Internal Medicine.

Lin F.,National University of Singapore | Tan H.J.,National University of Singapore | Guan J.S.,National University of Singapore | Lim Y.P.,National University of Singapore | Lim Y.P.,Agency for Science and Technology
Expert Review of Proteomics | Year: 2014

The discovery of biomarkers for early detection and treatment for gastric cancer are two important gaps that proteomics have the potential to fill. Advancements in mass spectrometry, sample preparation and separation strategies are crucial to proteomics-based discoveries and subsequent translations from bench to bedside. A great number of studies exploiting various subproteomic approaches have emerged for higher-resolution analysis (compared with shotgun proteomics) that permit interrogation of different post-translational and subcellular compartmentalized forms of the same proteins as determinants of disease phenotypes. This is a unique and key strength of proteomics over genomics. In this review, the salient features, competitive edges and pitfalls of various subproteomic approaches are discussed. We also highlight valuable insights from several subproteomic studies that have increased our understanding of the molecular etiology of gastric cancer and the findings that led to the discovery of potential biomarkers/drug targets that were otherwise not revealed by conventional shotgun expression proteomics. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

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