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Wueppenhorst N.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Stueger H.-P.,Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety | Kist M.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Glocker E.-O.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2013

Objectives: The aim of this study was to update data on levofloxacin/ciprofloxacin and triple resistance (resistance to metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin/ciprofloxacin) in Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates and to identify the impact of prior eradication therapies on their development. Methods: We tested the antimicrobial susceptibility to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, levofloxacin/ ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and rifampicin of 5296 clinical H. pylori strains isolated between 2006 and 2011. Information on prior eradication therapies was gathered and their impact on the development of antimicrobial resistance, in particular to levofloxacin/ciprofloxacin and triple resistance, was analysed. Results: From 2006 onwards, both levofloxacin/ciprofloxacin and triple resistance have steadily increased and peaked in 2011 with 29.1% and 18.6%, respectively. Unsuccessful prior eradication attempts proved a major risk factor for resistance development. Patients who had undergone unsuccessful eradication attempts harboured levofloxacin/ciprofloxacin- and triple-resistant isolates significantly more often than untreated individuals (26.7% and 18.1% versus 10.6% and 1.6%). Levofloxacin/ciprofloxacin and triple resistance occurred significantly more often in patients who had received quinolones when compared with patients who had not (44.5% versus 23.1% and 28.7% versus 15.6%). We did not observe any significant differences in resistance rates in the different German federal states. Conclusions: Resistance to levofloxacin/ciprofloxacin and triple resistance have continuously risen and reached worrying numbers. Hence we strongly advise against the use of quinolones in empirical second-line therapies for H. pylori without prior susceptibility testing and/or a carefully taken patient medical history. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

Didymella sidae-hermaphroditae sp. nov., a new species collected on Sida hermaphrodita (L.) Rusby, differs from other species of Didymella on this host and other Malvaceae in many cases in the diameter of the pycnidia and in length and width of the conidia. © 2016, Verlag Eugen Ulmer. All rights reserved.

Sager M.,Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety
Journal of Soils and Sediments | Year: 2016

Purpose: Standardized procedures for agricultural soil analysis use different extractant solutions, to determine one or just a few elements, which needs a lot of time and manpower. Within this work, it was tried to substitute traditional methods by the use of multi-element determination techniques, like inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) applied to a few solutions. Material and methods: ICP-OES and ICP-MS have been applied to a sequence of extracts obtained with 0.16 M acetic acid and 0.1 M oxalate buffer pH 3, which are more suitable for the plasma than traditional salt extractant solutions. Dilute acetic acid should characterize exchangeables plus carbonates, and oxalate buffer the pedogenic oxides. Aqua regia extractions in glass have been replaced by pressure digestion with KClO3 in dilute nitric acid, which yields results equivalent to aqua regia, and additionally permits the determination of total sulfur, as well as acid-leachable boron and silicon. Total digestion was done in PTFE beakers by fuming with HNO3/HClO4, subsequently with HF, and final uptake in 1 + 1 HCl. Results and discussion: The method was applied to 44 soils from apple orchards of different soil types and climatic zones. P and K obtained from standard acetate-lactate extract as well as B obtained from the Baron extract correlated with the results from the acetic acid extract better than 0.9. Just Mg from the CaCl2 extract (Schachtschabel) was independent from all other Mg fractions. The results of the total digests could be verified by XRF analysis of the solid, Ti recovery was the most critical item. The results for Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, Sr, Pb, and Zn obtained from KClO3 digest and from totals, were strongly correlated. Factor analysis showed that the fraction mobilized by dilute acetic acid contained Ca-Mg-carbonates as well as Al-Ba-Na in the first factor, K-P-S in a second, whereas Mn-La-Li formed a group of its own. The pedogenic oxides, obtained from Al-Fe-Mn-Ti released in oxalate, carry most of the cationic trace elements, whereas the anions P-S-B-Si and the essentials Cu-Mo form different groups. Among the main elements, the quasi-total data were much less intercorrelated than the totals. The rare earth elements formed a strongly intercorrelated group as well after total digestion as in the oxalate leach. Conclusions: The proposed method permits to obtain information about common cations including trace elements, and the nonmetals phosphorus, silicon, sulfur, boron, and iodine simultaneously, which could be a gate to find new relations among them. The two-step procedure permits to predict availabilities in shorter and longer periods of time. Data from the extract in dilute acetic acid for K, P, and B can substitute traditional methods of soil analysis. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Didymella michaelii sp. nov., a new species collected on Impatiens parviflora DC., differs from other species of Didymella on this host in the diameter of the pycnidia and in length and width of the conidia. © 2016 Verlag Eugen Ulmer. All rights reserved.

Ascochyta silphii sp. nov., a new species collected on Silphium perfoliatum L., differs from other species of Ascochyta on this host in length, width of the conidia and diameter of the pycnidia.

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