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Noviyanti R.,Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology | Noviyanti R.,The Ministry of Research and Technology RISTEK | Coutrier F.,Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology | Coutrier F.,The Ministry of Research and Technology RISTEK | And 22 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

Outside of Africa, P. falciparum and P. vivax usually coexist. In such co-endemic regions, successful malaria control programs have a greater impact on reducing falciparum malaria, resulting in P. vivax becoming the predominant species of infection. Adding to the challenges of elimination, the dormant liver stage complicates efforts to monitor the impact of ongoing interventions against P. vivax. We investigated molecular approaches to inform the respective transmission dynamics of P. falciparum and P. vivax and how these could help to prioritize public health interventions. Genotype data generated at 8 and 9 microsatellite loci were analysed in 168 P. falciparum and 166 P. vivax isolates, respectively, from four co-endemic sites in Indonesia (Bangka, Kalimantan, Sumba and West Timor). Measures of diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD) and population structure were used to gauge the transmission dynamics of each species in each setting. Marked differences were observed in the diversity and population structure of P. vivax versus P. falciparum. In Bangka, Kalimantan and Timor, P. falciparum diversity was low, and LD patterns were consistent with unstable, epidemic transmission, amenable to targeted intervention. In contrast, P. vivax diversity was higher and transmission appeared more stable. Population differentiation was lower in P. vivax versus P. falciparum, suggesting that the hypnozoite reservoir might play an important role in sustaining local transmission and facilitating the spread of P. vivax infections in different endemic settings. P. vivax polyclonality varied with local endemicity, demonstrating potential utility in informing on transmission intensity in this species. Molecular approaches can provide important information on malaria transmission that is not readily available from traditional epidemiological measures. Elucidation of the transmission dynamics circulating in a given setting will have a major role in prioritising malaria control strategies, particularly against the relatively neglected non-falciparum species.


Suseno H.,National Nuclear Energy Agency | Wahono I.B.,Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology | Muslim,University of Semarang
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2015

As data on anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations (i.e., 134Cs and 137Cs) in Indonesian marine environments including the Indian Ocean are scarce, offshore monitoring has been performed in the West Sumatra and South Java Seas. The activity concentration of 137Cs ranges from below minimum detectable activity (MDA) to 0.13Bqm-3 in the surface seawater of the South Java Sea and from lower than MDA to 0.28Bqm-3 in the surface seawater of the West Sumatra Sea. The concentrations of 137Cs in the surface seawater of the West Sumatra and South Java Seas are lower than the estimation of 137Cs concentration in the subsurface waters owing to the input of the North Pacific Ocean via the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). The concentrations of 134Cs in the sampling locations were lower than MDA. These results have indicated that these Indonesian marine waters have not yet been influenced by the Fukushima radioactive release. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University of Semarang, National Nuclear Energy Agency and Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Marine pollution bulletin | Year: 2015

As data on anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations (i.e., (134)Cs and (137)Cs) in Indonesian marine environments including the Indian Ocean are scarce, offshore monitoring has been performed in the West Sumatra and South Java Seas. The activity concentration of (137)Cs ranges from below minimum detectable activity (MDA) to 0.13Bqm(-3) in the surface seawater of the South Java Sea and from lower than MDA to 0.28Bqm(-3) in the surface seawater of the West Sumatra Sea. The concentrations of (137)Cs in the surface seawater of the West Sumatra and South Java Seas are lower than the estimation of (137)Cs concentration in the subsurface waters owing to the input of the North Pacific Ocean via the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). The concentrations of (134)Cs in the sampling locations were lower than MDA. These results have indicated that these Indonesian marine waters have not yet been influenced by the Fukushima radioactive release.


Gustiono D.,Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies | Gustiono D.,Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology | Wibowo E.,State University of Semarang | Othaman Z.,Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2013

Semiconductor nanowires have been intensively investigated in order to study their unique fundamental and application properties that develop at the nano-scale. One of main problems in the growth of III-V semiconductor nanowire is uniformity both of in dimension and composition of chemical elements. We synthesized InGaAs nanowire on GaAs (111) substrate at 400 °C-480 °C temperatures for 30 minutes using MOCVD. The nanowires grow perpendicular to the substrate via direct impinging mechanism and they have hexagonal shape with diameter of 80-150 nm. Dimension of nanowire, length and diameter, increase with increases of growth temperature. Formations of tapering could be controlled with growth at lower temperature. © IOP Publishing Ltd 2013.


Gunawan E.,Nagoya University | Sagiya T.,Nagoya University | Ito T.,Nagoya University | Kimata F.,Tono Research Institute of Earthquake Science | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

We investigate the postseismic deformation of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (SAE) using 5years of Global Positioning System (GPS) data located in northern Sumatra. Continuous GPS data from northern Sumatra suggest that the relaxation time in the vertical displacement is longer than horizontal displacements. This implies that there are multiple physical mechanisms that control the postseismic deformation, which refer to afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation. In this study, we introduce an analysis strategy of postseismic deformation to simultaneously calculate multiple mechanisms of afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation. The afterslip inversion results indicate that the distribution of the afterslip and the coseismic slip are compensatory of each other. Also, afterslip has a limited contribution to vertical deformation in northern Sumatra. In our rheology model, we use a gravitational Maxwell viscoelastic response and the result indicates that the elastic layer thickness is 65±5km and the Maxwell viscosity is 8.0±1.0×1018Pas. We find that afterslip plus Maxwell viscoelastic relaxation are appropriate to explain the deformation in northern Sumatra. We also find that our rheology model reproduces the long-term features of the GPS time series in Thailand. Applying our rheology model to the data in Andaman Islands our afterslip estimation is located at the down-dip part of the plate boundary. Finally, we showed that our rheology model is applicable to the GPS datasets of postseismic deformation of the 2004 SAE located in northern Sumatra, Thailand, and Andaman-Nicobar, respectively. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Suseno H.,National Nuclear Energy Agency | Wahono I.B.,Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2015

As data on anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations (i.e., 134Cs and 137Cs) in Indonesian marine environments including the Indian Ocean are scarce, offshore monitoring has been performed in the West Sumatra and South Java Seas. The activity concentration of 137Cs ranges from below minimum detectable activity (MDA) to 0.13Bqm-3 in the surface seawater of the South Java Sea and from lower than MDA to 0.28Bqm-3 in the surface seawater of the West Sumatra Sea. The concentrations of 137Cs in the surface seawater of the West Sumatra and South Java Seas are lower than the estimation of 137Cs concentration in the subsurface waters owing to the input of the North Pacific Ocean via the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). The concentrations of 134Cs in the sampling locations were lower than MDA. These results have indicated that these Indonesian marine waters have not yet been influenced by the Fukushima radioactive release. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Charles Darwin University, Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology, Addis Ababa Institute of Technology and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

P. vivax is an important public health burden in Ethiopia, accounting for almost half of all malaria cases. Owing to heterogeneous transmission across the country, a stronger evidence base on local transmission dynamics is needed to optimise allocation of resources and improve malaria interventions.In a pilot evaluation of local level P. vivax molecular surveillance in southern Ethiopia, the diversity and population structure of isolates collected between May and November 2013 were investigated. Blood samples were collected from microscopy positive P. vivax patients recruited to clinical and cross-sectional surveys from four sites: Arbaminch, Halaba, Badawacho and Hawassa. Parasite genotyping was undertaken at nine tandem repeat markers. Eight loci were successfully genotyped in 197 samples (between 36 and 59 per site). Heterogeneity was observed in parasite diversity and structure amongst the sites. Badawacho displayed evidence of unstable transmission, with clusters of identical clonal infections. Linkage disequilibrium in Badawacho was higher (IAS = 0.32, P = 0.010) than in the other populations (IAS range = 0.01-0.02) and declined markedly after adjusting for identical infections (IAS = 0.06, P = 0.010). Other than Badawacho (HE = 0.70), population diversity was equivalently high across the sites (HE = 0.83). Polyclonal infections were more frequent in Hawassa (67%) than the other populations (range: 8-44%). Despite the variable diversity, differentiation between the sites was low (FST range: 5 x 10-3-0.03).Marked variation in parasite population structure likely reflects differing local transmission dynamics. Parasite genotyping in these heterogeneous settings has potential to provide important complementary information with which to optimise malaria control interventions.


Soedarsono J.W.,University of Indonesia | Kawigraha A.,University of Indonesia | Kawigraha A.,Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology | Sulamet-Ariobimo R.D.,Trisakti University | And 3 more authors.
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

Limitation of iron ore reserve having high quality ore and of energy has enhanced development in iron and steel producing technology and method. The ITmk3 process is one of iron making technology that can cope with the problems. It uses composite pellet as feeding material. In this process the ratio between iron and carbon are very important. Carbon holds an important role in the reduction process of iron. The transformation from iron oxides to iron metal will complete if composite pellet contains enough carbon. This paper discusses the influence of carbon ratio in iron reduction process. Nickel saprolite and coal are used as iron and carbon source. They are grinded, crushed, sieved, mixed and formed in cylinders. The weight ratios of ores to coal are 1:1 and 2:1. The reduction held in a furnace at 1100°C for 60 minutes and 1250°C for 120 minutes. The results show that the reduction could not complete. Weak peak of FeNi is due to reduction process do not immediately follow the dehydroxylation process. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Waris A.,Bandung Institute of Technology | Pramuditya S.,Bandung Institute of Technology | Aji I.K.,Bandung Institute of Technology | Wirawan R.,Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology | Nuha,Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

Study on SUPEL (Straight Utilization of sPEnt LWR fuel in LWR system) scenario for PWR spent fuel direct recycling scheme has been performed. Several spent PWR fuel compositions in loaded fuel has been investigated to achive the criticality of reactor. The reactor can obtain it criticality for 4.5 a% of UO2 enrichment with at maximum 8.0 a% of spent fuel fraction in loaded fuel. The neutron spectra become harder with the raising of UO2 enrichment in the loaded fresh fuel as well as the increasing of the fraction of spent fuel in the core. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Wiriadidjaja S.,University Putra Malaysia | Shakrine Mohd Rafie A.,University Putra Malaysia | Mustapha F.,University Putra Malaysia | Hasim F.,Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

The existing UPM low speed wind tunnel was usually occupied by students, who carried out their final year projects or postgraduate researches, so that there was hardly free time slot for any additional testing work. Due to this reason, a new wind tunnel project has been started recently. Some basic specifications of the new tunnel have been pre-selected before the project was started, which comprised the following design decisions: a tunnel speed of 50 m/s, a test section area of lxl m2, and a closed circuit tunnel type. It wouldn’t be difficult to perceive that this pre-selection was made based on some of the trade-off results among the project’s options and constraints. This paper is aimed to present a simple analysis on the design of the new tunnel, focusing only on its basic geometries. Some design decisions that have been made related to its basic geometries are analyzed and reported in this paper. This analysis may be considered as a design verification of the new tunnel or even perhaps be regarded as scientific justification for its existence. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

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