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Samaan G.,Australian National University | Gultom A.,Health Level | Indriani R.,Agency for Agricultural Research and Development | Lokuge K.,Australian National University | Kelly P.M.,Australian National University
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2011

Live bird markets can become contaminated with and become a source of transmission for avian influenza viruses including the highly pathogenic H5N1 strain. Many countries affected by the H5N1-virus have limited resources for programs in environmental health, sanitation and disease control in live bird markets. This study proposes five critical control points (CCPs) to reduce the risk of H5N1-virus contamination in markets in low resource settings. The CCPs were developed based on three surveys conducted in Indonesia: a cross-sectional survey in 119 markets, a knowledge, attitudes and practice survey in 3 markets and a microbiological survey in 83 markets. These surveys assessed poultry workflow, market infrastructure, hygiene and regulatory practices and microbiological contamination with the H5N1-virus. The five CCPs identified were (1) reducing risk of receiving infected birds into the market, (2) reducing the risk of virus spread between different bird flocks in holding cages, (3) reducing surface contamination by isolating slaughter processes from other poultry-related processes, (4) minimizing the potential for contamination during evisceration of carcasses and (5) reducing the risk of surface contamination in the sale zone of the market. To be relevant for low resource settings, the CCPs do not necessitate large infrastructure changes. The CCPs are suited for markets that slaughter poultry and have capacity for daily disposal and removal of solid waste from the market. However, it is envisaged that the CCPs can be adapted for the development of risk-based programs in various settings. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Samaan G.,Australian National University | Indriani R.,Agency for Agricultural Research and Development | Carrasco L.R.,National University of Singapore | Lokuge K.,Australian National University | And 4 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2012

Live bird markets (LBMs) are at risk of contamination with the avian influenza H5N1 virus. There are a number of methods for prioritizing LBMs for intervention to curb the risk of contamination. Selecting a method depends on diagnostic objective and disease prevalence. In a low resource setting, options for prioritization are constricted by the cost of and resources available for tool development and administration, as well as the resources available for intervention. In this setting, tools can be developed using previously collected data on risk factors for contamination, and translated into prediction equations, including decision trees (DTs). DTs are a graphical type of classifier that combine simple questions about the data in an intuitive way. DTs can be used to develop tools tailored to different diagnostic objectives. To demonstrate the utility of this method, risk factor data arising from a previous cross-sectional study in 83 LBMs in Indonesia were used to construct DTs. A DT with high specificity was selected for the initial stage of an LBM intervention campaign in which authorities aim to focus intervention resources on a small set of LBMs that are at near-certain risk of contamination. Another DT with high sensitivity was selected for later stages in an intervention campaign in which authorities aim to detect and prioritize all LBMs with the risk factors for virus contamination. The best specific DT achieved specificity of 77% and the best sensitive DT achieved sensitivity of 90%. The specific DT had two variables: the size of the duck population in the LBM and the human population density in the LBM's district. The sensitive DT had three variables: LBM location, whether solid waste was removed from the LBM daily and whether the LBM was zoned to separate the bird holding, slaughtering and sale areas. High specificity or sensitivity will be preferred by authorities depending on the stage of the intervention campaign. The study demonstrates that simple tools utilizing DTs can be developed to prioritize LBMs for intervention to control H5N1-virus. DT tools are simple to apply, suitable for low-resource settings and can be tailored to the particular needs and stage of the disease control program. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Istianto M.,Agency for Agricultural Research and Development | Soemargono A.,Agency for Agricultural Research and Development
Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

Mango fruit borer (red-banded caterpillar) Noorda albizonalis is one of the important pests detrimental to the cultivation of mangoes. A control measure to reduce the level of attacks is necessary in order to prevent a high loss of yield. Plant based pesticides (as citronella essential oil) are potential pest control agents that are environmentally friendly and are safer than the currently used pest-control agents. The present paper was conducted at the Cukurgondang Research Station, Pasuruan-East Java, Indonesia. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with 8 replications in which the treatments were concentrations of essential oil 2, 4, 6 cc/l and control (untreated). The parameters observed were the intensity of fruit borer attack and the economic profit obtained from the application of citronella oil. The results showed that the application of citronella essential oil could reduce the rate of fruit borer attack and the production loss on mango, mainly at a concentration of 6 and 4 cc/l. The profit per hectare gained from its application at a concentration of 6 and 4 cc/l was IDR 3,596,000 and IDR 2,864,000, respectively (US$1 = IDR 9,700). © 2015 Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences. Source

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