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de Sa R.F.,Agencia Estadual de Defesa Agropecuaria da Bahia ADAB | Castellani M.A.,State University of Southwest Bahia | Ribeiro A.E.L.,State University of Southwest Bahia | Perez-Maluf R.,State University of Southwest Bahia | And 3 more authors.
Bulletin of Insectology

Besides being considered the greatest pests of fruit growing, fruit flies constitute a large obstacle to the growth of the exportation of fresh fruit. Knowledge of the structure of fruit fly communities is of great importance to the bioecological studies of these insects, but there is a lack of information about the faunistic composition of fruit flies in Brazil. The objective of this work was to analysis the composition of the species of Anastrepha, in eleven mango orchards of the fruit growing complex Gavião River, Bahia, Brazil. These studies were done in 2004 and 2005, in Anagé, Caraíbas and Belo Campo town, 23 McPhail traps, which collected 798 female fruit flies from the genus Anastrepha. The structure of these communities was evaluated in each orchard by means of faunistic indexes frequency, constancy, dominance, diversity and similarity. The number of species varied from four to eight in each orchard; and the following species was recorded: Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), Anastrepha dissimilis Stone, Anastrepha amita Zucchi, Anastrepha distincta Greene, Anastrepha pickeli Lima, Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi and Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi. The most frequent and dominant species were A. fraterculus and A. obliqua. The indexes of diversity varied from 1.01 to 1.62. In general, the similarity between orchards was high (above 55.0%). We observed the formation of groups, one constituted by Frutvale, Carlan, Santa Clara and Panorama orchards; another composed of Cofet, Campo Gavião and Ouro Verde and a third group formed by Boa Vista orchard. Barra da Onça and Arruda are distinguished from other orchards. Source

De Mattos Sobrinho C.C.,Agencia Estadual de Defesa Agropecuaria da Bahia ADAB | Da Silveira A.J.,State University of Santa Cruz | De Cerqueira Cesar F.B.,Instituto Biologico Of Sao Paulo | De Oliveira C.M.G.,Instituto Biologico Of Sao Paulo | Bittencourt M.A.L.,State University of Santa Cruz

Inadequate management along with factors such as precipitation, humidity and temperature favor pests that limit production and reduce the quality of Heliconia spp. inflorescences. The objective of the present study was to detect and identify phytonematodes associated with heliconias. From August of 2006 to June of 2007, 81 roots and soil samples were collected from Heliconia spp. in seven municipalities of the southern coast of Bahia. Phytonematode extractions were performed with 100 cc3 of soil and 10 g of roots, per sample. Six nematode genera were detected: Helicotylenchus Steiner, Hemicycliophora De Man, Meloidogyne Goeldi, Mesocriconema Andrassy, Pratylenchus Filipjev and Rotylenchulus Linford & Oliveira. Identified species included: Helicotylenchus erythrinae (Zimmermann) Golden, H. crenacauda Sher (which constitute new occurrence in Heliconia spp. in Brazil), H. dihystera (Cobb) Sher, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood, Pratylenchus zeae Graham and Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira. Source

da Cruz T.V.,Federal University of Reconcavo da Bahia | Peixoto C.P.,Federal University of Reconcavo da Bahia | Martins M.C.,Faculdade Arnaldo Horacio Ferreira | Laranjeira F.F.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria | And 3 more authors.
Tropical Plant Pathology

The objective of this work was to quantify the yield loss caused by Asian soybean rust in three cultivars sown in different periods in the western region of Bahia. The experiments were installed in São Desidério, BA, in the growing seasons 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The experimental design was carried out in random blocks with four replicates and subdivided plot scheme in time. The plot was represented by the rust control treatments (with and without chemical control) and the subplots represented by cultivars (Monsoy 8411, BRS Corisco and BRS Barreiras). The severity, number of leaves throughout the cycle and yield were evaluated. The logistic model was the one that better fitted the severity data whereas the polynominal exponential function Ln (y) = a + bx1,5 + cx0,5 fitted the temporal variation of number of leaves better. The means of the area under the disease progress curve and yield were compared by Tukey test. Yield loss increased during later sowing periods due to greater inoculum pressure hindering disease control and decreasing grain yield. Source

Laranjeira F.F.,Embrapa Cassava and Fruits | Silva S.X.B.,Agencia Estadual de Defesa Agropecuaria da Bahia ADAB | de Andrade E.C.,Embrapa Cassava and Fruits | Almeida D.O.,Agencia Estadual de Defesa Agropecuaria da Bahia ADAB | And 3 more authors.
Experimental and Applied Acarology

Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) is a cosmopolitan and polyphagous mite that transmits important phytoviruses, such as coffee ringspot virus, passion fruit green spot virus and Citrus leprosis virus C. To characterise the dynamics of the probability and the rate of B. phoenicis infestation in response to edaphic and climatic factors, monthly inspections were performed in nine orchards in a citrus region of the State of Bahia, Brazil, for 35 months. Three fruits per plant were examined using a magnifying glass (10×) on 21 plants distributed along a “W”-shaped path in each orchard. Meteorological data were collected from a conventional station. To determine the correlations among the climatic variables, the data were analysed using Spearman correlations. Variables were selected by principal component analysis, and those that contributed the most to differentiate the groups were evaluated via a Mann–Whitney test. Using the quantile–quantile method, the limit values for the following climatic variables were determined: temperature (24.5 °C), photoperiod (12 h), relative humidity (83 %), evapotranspiration (71 mm) and rainy days (14 days). The combination of longer days, higher temperatures, lower relative humidity levels and lower evapotranspiration increased the probability of B. phoenicis infestation, whereas successive rain events decreased that risk. Infestation rates were negatively affected by relative humidity levels above 83 % and were positively affected by a decreasing available soil–water fraction and increasing insolation and photoperiod. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

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