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Haenni M.,Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire Anses | Saras E.,Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire Anses | Chatre P.,Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire Anses | Medaille C.,Vebiotel Veterinary Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

Objectives: To characterize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical strains from cats and dogs in France, and to compare the clones identified with the distribution of French human MRSA. Methods: Susceptibilities to antimicrobials were assessed by disc diffusion. Resistance and virulence genes were screened using a microarray-based assay. Isolates were additionally characterized by SmaI macrorestriction analysis and spa typing. Results: From 2006 to 2010, the proportion of MRSA infections in pets in France was low (1.8%), but most isolates (87.0%, 20/23) belonged to human clones. The most common clones were the Lyon clone (69.6%, 16/23), the livestock-associated CC398 (13.0%, 3/23) and the Geraldine clone (8.7%, 2/23). Interestingly, we report the first USA300 clone infecting a European dog, which was probably imported by a US patient. Conclusions: Over a 5 year period, the proportion of MRSA infections in pets appears low (<2%) in France, but the distribution of the clones mostly mirrors the epidemiology of human invasive clones. These data highlight the role of pets as both victims and reservoirs of endemic, epidemic and/or invasive MRSA. ©The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


Kovacs G.G.,Medical University of Vienna | Wagner U.,AJ Roboscreen GmbH | Dumont B.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Pikkarainen M.,University of Eastern Finland | And 10 more authors.
Acta Neuropathologica | Year: 2012

α-Synuclein is the major protein associated with Lewy body dementia, Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy. Since α-synuclein is present in the brain in physiological conditions as a presynaptic protein, it is crucial to characterize disease-associated modifications to develop an in vivo biomarker. With the aim to develop antibodies showing high specificity and sensitivity for disease-associated α-synuclein, synthetic peptides containing different amino acid sequences were used for immunization of mice. After generation of α-synuclein aggregates, ELISA and immunoblotting were used to test the specificity of antibodies. Tissue microarray sections originating from different human α-synucleinopathies were used to compare immunostaining with other, commercially available antibodies. Immunization of mice with the peptide TKEGVVHGVATVAE (amino acid 44-57 of α-synuclein) resulted in the generation of a monoclonal antibody (5G4), which was able to bind aggregated α-synuclein preparation in sandwich ELISA or coated on magnetic beads. 5G4 proved to be superior to other antibodies in comparative immunohistochemical studies by revealing more widespread and distinct α-synuclein pathology. Immunoblotting of human brain tissue revealed an additional band seen in dementia with Lewy bodies, whereas the band representing monomeric α-synuclein was very weak or lacking. In summary, the 5G4 antibody is most promising for re-evaluation of archival material and may offer new perspective for the development of in vivo diagnostic assays for detecting disease-associated α-synuclein in body fluids. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Van Duijkeren E.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | Greko C.,National Veterinary Institute | Pringle M.,National Veterinary Institute | Baptiste K.E.,Danish Health and Medicines Authority | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Pleuromutilins (tiamulin and valnemulin) are antimicrobial agents that are used mainly in veterinary medicine, especially for swine and to a lesser extent for poultry and rabbits. In pigs, tiamulin and valnemulin are used to treat swine dysentery, spirochaete-associated diarrhoea, porcine proliferative enteropathy, enzootic pneumonia and other infections where Mycoplasma is involved. There are concerns about the reported increases in the MICs of tiamulin and valnemulin for porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from different European countries, as only a limited number of antimicrobials are available for the treatment of swine dysentery where resistance to these antimicrobials is already common and widespread. The loss of pleuromutilins as effective tools to treat swine dysentery because of further increases in resistance or as a consequence of restrictions would present a considerable threat to pig health, welfare and productivity. In humans, only one product containing pleuromutilins (retapamulin) is authorized currently for topical use; however, products for oral and intravenous administration to humans with serious multidrug-resistant skin infections and respiratory infections, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are being developed. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the usage of pleuromutilins, resistance development and the potential impact of this resistance on animal and human health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


PubMed | National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Royal Veterinary College University of London, Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire ANSES, Public Health England and 11 more.
Type: | Journal: The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy | Year: 2016

Antimicrobials are important tools for the therapy of infectious bacterial diseases in companion animals. Loss of efficacy of antimicrobial substances can seriously compromise animal health and welfare. A need for the development of new antimicrobials for the therapy of multiresistant infections, particularly those caused by Gram-negative bacteria, has been acknowledged in human medicine and a future corresponding need in veterinary medicine is expected. A unique aspect related to antimicrobial resistance and risk of resistance transfer in companion animals is their close contact with humans. This creates opportunities for interspecies transmission of resistant bacteria. Yet, the current knowledge of this field is limited and no risk assessment is performed when approving new veterinary antimicrobials. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the use and indications for antimicrobials in companion animals, drug-resistant bacteria of concern among companion animals, risk factors for colonization of companion animals with resistant bacteria and transmission of antimicrobial resistance (bacteria and/or resistance determinants) between animals and humans. The major antimicrobial resistance microbiological hazards originating from companion animals that directly or indirectly may cause adverse health effects in humans are MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, VRE, ESBL- or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative bacteria. In the face of the previously recognized microbiological hazards, a risk assessment tool could be applied in applications for marketing authorization for medicinal products for companion animals. This would allow the approval of new veterinary medicinal antimicrobials for which risk levels are estimated as acceptable for public health.


Bouissou-Schurtz C.,Agence Nationale de Securite du Medicament ANSM | Houeto P.,Agence Nationale de Securite du Medicament ANSM | Guerbet M.,University of Rouen | Bachelot M.,Montpellier University | And 5 more authors.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

In this study, we focused on the list of 33 chemicals that was established through a French national prioritisation strategy. Assessing the potential risks to the environment was a step-wise procedure: (i) we determined the Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC) of all molecules measured in the national survey based on the highest recommended dose used, (ii) we used the Measured Environmental Concentration (MEC) and the Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) to establish the Risk Quotient (RQ) based on either a PEC/PNEC (estimated risk) or MEC/PNEC (real risk) ratio. The risk assessment was performed using a binary ecological classification suggesting that appreciable risk is likely (RQ. ≥. 1). Of the 15 molecules quantified in the survey, 12 had a PEC higher than the action limit value of 0.01. μg/L. According to the EU Guideline, environmental risk was estimated as likely for the following five compounds: acetaminophen (RQ. = 1.6), ibuprofen (RQ. = 600), diclofenac (RQ. = 15), oxazepam (RQ. = 2.1) and carbamazepine (RQ. = 3.2). Only ibuprofen was identified as posing real environmental risk based on its MEC (RQ. = 1.9). © 2014.


Sakwinska O.,University of Lausanne | Sakwinska O.,Nestlé | Morisset D.,University of Lausanne | Madec J.-Y.,Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire Anses | And 3 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2011

Staphylococcus aureus is a major bovine mastitis pathogen. Although the reported antimicrobial resistance was generally low, the emergence of new genetic clusters in bovine mastitis requires examination of the link between antimicrobial resistance and genotypes. Here, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) profiles and standard antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined in order to characterize a total of 343 S. aureus cow mastitis isolates from two geographically close regions of Switzerland and France. AFLP profiles revealed similar population compositions in the two regions, with 4 major clusters (C8, C20, C97, and C151), but the proportions of isolates in each cluster significantly diverged between the two countries (P = 9.2 10-9). Antimicrobial resistance was overall low (<5% resistance to all therapeutically relevant molecules), with the exception of penicillin resistance, which was detected in 26% of the isolates. Penicillin resistance proportions differed between clusters, with only 1 to 2% of resistance associated with C20 and C151 and up to 70% associated with bovine C97. The prevalence of C20 and C8 was unexpectedly high and requires further investigation into the mechanism of adaptation to the bovine host. The strong association of penicillin resistance with few clusters highlights the fact that the knowledge of local epidemiology is essential for rational choices of antimicrobial treatment in the absence of susceptibility testing. Taken together, these observations argue in favor of more routine scrutiny of antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic-resistant clones in cattle and the farm environment. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Haenni M.,Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire Anses | De Moraes N.A.,Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire Anses | Chatre P.,Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire Anses | Medaille C.,Veterinary Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance | Year: 2014

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a frequent pathogen in dogs. The emergence of meticillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP), which is concomitantly resistant to nearly all veterinary licensed antibiotics used for systemic treatment in dogs, is a major problem for veterinarians. In France, 16.9% (41/243) of the S. pseudintermedius collected in 2010 were MRSP. They mainly belonged to the multiresistant MLST sequence type ST71, spa type t02, SCCmec type II-III (ST71-t02-II-III) European clone. Moreover, we also report the emergence of multiresistant meticillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius isolates presenting atypical and/or new spa types. This study highlights the need for surveillance, optimised treatment guidelines and new therapeutic alternatives. © 2014 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer.


PubMed | Veterinary Laboratory, Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire Anses and Copenhagen University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of global antimicrobial resistance | Year: 2016

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a frequent pathogen in dogs. The emergence of meticillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP), which is concomitantly resistant to nearly all veterinary licensed antibiotics used for systemic treatment in dogs, is a major problem for veterinarians. In France, 16.9% (41/243) of the S. pseudintermedius collected in 2010 were MRSP. They mainly belonged to the multiresistant MLST sequence type ST71, spa type t02, SCCmec type II-III (ST71-t02-II-III) European clone. Moreover, we also report the emergence of multiresistant meticillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius isolates presenting atypical and/or new spa types. This study highlights the need for surveillance, optimised treatment guidelines and new therapeutic alternatives.


Nicot S.,Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire Anses | Bencsik A.,Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire Anses | Morignat E.,Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire Anses | Mestre-Frances N.,Montpellier University | And 2 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

We compared transmission characteristics for prions from L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy and MM2- cortical sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the Syrian golden hamster and an ovine prion protein-transgenic mouse line and isolated distinct prion strains. Our fi ndings suggest the absence of a causal relationship between these diseases, but further investigation is warranted.


Dahmen S.,Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire Anses | Metayer V.,Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire Anses | Gay E.,Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire Anses | Madec J.-Y.,Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire Anses | Haenni M.,Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire Anses
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2013

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have become widespread enzymes in food-producing and companion animals worldwide. However, in cattle mastitis, a major cause of economic loss in the dairy industry, ESBL-producers were rarely described. In this study, from a collection of 1427 Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates causing clinical mastitis in France, we report 0.4% (6/1427) of the isolates carrying an ESBL gene. These six isolates were genetically unrelated and recovered over a 3-year period of time. The blaCTX-M-14 gene was found in 4/6 isolates, and was predominantly located on F2:A-:B- IncFII plasmids. The blaCTX-M-1 IncI1/ST3, which is widespread in various animal species in France, was found as well. Interestingly, among the five E. coli isolates, the ST23 and ST58 clones were found twice, together with the ST10 clone, all of which were previously found as ESBL-carriers in humans. Despite the very limited number of ESBL-producers recovered, this study shows a surprisingly low molecular diversity of the strains causing mastitis in France with respect to ESBL genes, plasmids and clones. Further work is needed to understand the major driving forces of the ESBL epidemiology in animals, including for different infections within the same animal species. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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