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de Neve M.,Ghent University | Sioen I.,Ghent University | Boon P.E.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Arganini C.,Instituto Nazionale Of Ricerca Per Gli Alimenti E La Nutrizione | And 26 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2010

Within the European project called EXPOCHI (Individual Food Consumption Data and Exposure Assessment Studies for Children), 14 different European individual food consumption databases of children were used to conduct harmonised dietary exposure assessments for lead, chromium, selenium and food colours. For this, two food categorisation systems were developed to classify the food consumption data in such a way that these could be linked to occurrence data of the considered compounds. One system served for the exposure calculations of lead, chromium and selenium. The second system was developed for the exposure assessment of food colours. The food categories defined for the lead, chromium and selenium exposure calculations were used as a basis for the food colour categorisation, with adaptations to optimise the linkage with the food colour occurrence data. With this work, an initial impetus was given to make user-friendly food categorisation systems for contaminants and food colours applicable on a pan-European level. However, a set of difficulties were encountered in creating a common food categorisation system for 14 individual food consumption databases that differ in the type and number of foods coded and in level of detail provided about the consumed foods. The work done and the problems encountered in this project can be of interest for future projects in which food consumption data will be collected on a pan-European level and used for common exposure assessments. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Lefrancois T.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Hendrikx P.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments AFSSA | Ehrhardt N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Millien M.,Port-au-Prince University | And 12 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2010

The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on http://www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the Caribbean region and may allow the development of research studies on both AI risk analysis and on AIV ecology. © 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.


Augustin J.-C.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | Bergis H.,Agence francaise de securite sanitaire des aliments AFSSA | Midelet-Bourdin G.,Agence francaise de securite sanitaire des aliments AFSSA | Cornu M.,Agence francaise de securite sanitaire des aliments AFSSA | And 8 more authors.
Food Microbiology | Year: 2011

The assessment of the evolution of micro-organisms naturally contaminating food must take into account the variability of biological factors, food characteristics and storage conditions. A research project involving eight French laboratories was conducted to quantify the variability of growth parameters of Listeria monocytogenes obtained by challenge testing in five food products. The residual variability corresponded to a coefficient of variation (CV) of approximately 20% for the growth rate (μmax) and 130% for the parameter K = μmax × lag. The between-batch and between-manufacturer variability of μmax was very dependent on the food tested and mean CV of approximately 20 and 35% were observed for these two sources of variability, respectively. The initial physiological state variability led to a CV of 100% for the parameter K. It appeared that repeating a limited number of three challenge tests with three different batches (or manufacturers) and with different initial physiological states seems often necessary and adequate to accurately assess the variability of the behavior of L. monocytogenes in a specific food produced by a given manufacturer (or for a more general food designation). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Alban L.,Danish Agriculture and Food Council DAFC | Pozio E.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita Iss | Boes J.,Danish Agriculture and Food Council DAFC | Boireau P.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments AFSSA | And 18 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2011

Each year, more than 167 million pigs in the European Union (EU) are tested for Trichinella spp. under the current meat hygiene regulations. This imposes large economic costs on countries, yet the vast majority of these pigs test negative and the public health risk in many countries is therefore considered very low. This work reviewed the current Trichinella status across the EU as well as the national level of monitoring and reporting. It also reviewed which animal species were affected by Trichinella and in which species it should be surveyed. This information was used to design a cost-effective surveillance programme that enables a standardised monitoring approach within the EU. The proposed surveillance programme relies on identifying sub-populations of animals with a distinct risk. Low-risk pigs are finisher pigs that originate from so-called controlled housing. All other pigs are considered high-risk pigs. Controlled housing is identified by the application of a specific list of management and husbandry practices. We suggest that member states (MS) be categorised into three classes based on the confidence that Trichinella can be considered absent, in the specified sub-population of pigs above a specified design prevalence which we set to 1 per million pigs. A simple and transparent method is proposed to estimate this confidence, based on the sensitivity of the surveillance system, taking into account the sensitivity of testing and the design prevalence. The probability of detecting a positive case, if present, must be high (>95 or >99%) to ensure that there is a low or negligible risk of transmission to humans through the food chain. In MS where the probability of a positive pig is demonstrated to be negligible, testing of fattening pigs from a sub-population consisting of pigs from controlled housing can be considered unnecessary. Furthermore, reduced testing of finishers from the sub-population consisting of pigs from non-controlled housing might even be considered, if conducted in conjunction with a proportionate sampling scheme and a risk-based wildlife surveillance programme where applicable. The proposed surveillance programme specifies the required number of samples to be taken and found negative, in a MS. A MS with no data or positive findings will initially be allocated to class 1, in which all pigs should be tested. When a MS is able to demonstrate a 95% or 99% confidence that Trichinella is absent, the MS will be allocated to class 2 or 3, in which the testing requirement is lower than in class 1. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Grau-Roma L.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Baekbo P.,Pig Research Center | Rose N.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments AFSSA | Wallgren P.,National Veterinary Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Swine Health and Production | Year: 2012

Objectives: To propose and evaluate a protocol to establish a diagnosis of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) at herd level. Materials and methods: The data used included both laboratory data from previous epidemiological studies carried out in Italy, Denmark, and Spain and original postweaning mortality data collected from several herds in Denmark, France, Spain, and Sweden. Statistical process control techniques were used to analyze the longitudinal evolution of mortality in each herd. Results: The analysis of data sets from three different countries showed that to diagnose at least one PMWS-affected pig with a probability > 95%, it is necessary to study a minimum of three to five pigs. Longitudinally collected data showed that when > 20 data points were available, a significant increase in mortality was always detected at close to the time of PMWS diagnosis. When < 10 points were available, a significant increase in mortality was detected in four of six studied herds, although mortality percentages were always higher at the time of PMWS diagnosis than before diagnosis. Implications: These results suggest that two conditions must be fulfilled to diagnose PMWS in a herd. Firstly, a significant increase in postweaning mortality, compared to the historical background in the herd, must be observed in association with clinical signs compatible with PMWS. Secondly, PMWS must be diagnosed in at least one of three to five necropsied pigs concurrently with the increase in mortality. Ruling out other potential causes of increased mortality is also necessary.


Leroy Q.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Lebrigand K.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Armougom F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Barbry P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever, is mainly transmitted to humans through an aerosol route. A spore-like form allows C. burnetii to resist different environmental conditions. Because of this, analysis of the survival strategies used by this bacterium to adapt to new environmental conditions is critical for our understanding of C. burnetii pathogenicity. Here, we report the early transcriptional response of C. burnetii under temperature stresses. Our data show that C. burnetii exhibited minor changes in gene regulation under short exposure to heat or cold shock. While small differences were observed, C. burnetii seemed to respond similarly to cold and heat shock. The expression profiles obtained using microarrays produced in-house were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Under temperature stresses, 190 genes were differentially expressed in at least one condition, with a fold change of up to 4. Globally, the differentially expressed genes in C. burnetii were associated with bacterial division, (p)ppGpp synthesis, wall and membrane biogenesis and, especially, lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan synthesis. These findings could be associated with growth arrest and witnessed transformation of the bacteria to a spore-like form. Unexpectedly, clusters of neighboring genes were differentially expressed. These clusters do not belong to operons or genetic networks; they have no evident associated functions and are not under the control of the same promoters. We also found undescribed but comparable clusters of regulation in previously reported transcriptomic analyses of intracellular bacteria, including Rickettsia sp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The transcriptomic patterns of C. burnetii observed under temperature stresses permits the recognition of unpredicted clusters of regulation for which the trigger mechanism remains unidentified but which may be the result of a new mechanism of epigenetic regulation. © 2010 Leroy et al.


Millour S.,Agence Francaise De Securite Sanitaire des Aliments AFSSA | Noel L.,Agence Francaise De Securite Sanitaire des Aliments AFSSA | Chekri R.,Agence Francaise De Securite Sanitaire des Aliments AFSSA | Vastel C.,Agence Francaise De Securite Sanitaire des Aliments AFSSA | And 2 more authors.
Accreditation and Quality Assurance | Year: 2010

In 2006, the French Food Safety Agency (AFSSA) started the second French Total Diet Study to assess exposure to essential and non-essential elements through dietary intake by analysing 1352 food samples. A total of 21 elements were analysed to date by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry after closed vessel microwave digestion, in 660 samples corresponding to at half of the study. This work presents and discusses the results of the various internal quality controls (IQC) applied to ensure that the analytical procedure is correctly carried out, from digestion to analysis, and to enable analytical chemists to validate the results obtained. The whole IQC allows to estimate uncertainties according to elements and to select those that should be discarded from the study or only given as indicative values for elements that were not within defined quality limits. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Belchior E.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire | Barataud D.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire | Ollivier R.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire | Capek I.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire | And 3 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2011

In December 2008, three hospitalized cases of suspected psittacosis infection were notified by respiratory disease clinicians from a local hospital to the Regional Epidemiology Unit of Pays de la Loire, France. They all had attended a bird fair. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among exhibitors and organizers to identify potential risk factors in relation to this fair. Environmental and veterinary investigations were implemented to trace potential sources of infection. We identified two confirmed, two probable and 44 possible cases among participants. The attack rate in exhibitors and organizers was 38% (33/86). The median incubation period was 11 days (range 6-22 days). Individuals located in two particular sectors of the showroom were found to be at double the risk of developing psittacosis (relative rate 2·1, 95% confidence interval 1·03-4·18) than those in other sectors. Pooled faecal samples of birds belonging to a possible case exhibitor tested positive for Chlamydiaceae by PCR. Ventilation conditions in the showroom were inadequate. This investigation allowed the formulation of recommendations to prevent psittacosis in bird exhibitions which are held weekly in France. © Cambridge University Press 2011.


Haenni M.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments AFSSA | Saras E.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments AFSSA | Madec J.-Y.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments AFSSA
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2011

The ermB gene was identified in 111 erythromycin resistant isolates of Streptococcus uberis from cases of bovine mastitis associated either with a constitutive (47/111) or an inducible (64/111) phenotype, as well as a phenotypic resistance to all macrolides tested. Resistance to lincosamides was identified in 14 other isolates of S. uberis from bovine mastitis cases and was mainly mediated by the linB gene; resistance conferred by a combination of two genes (linB- lnuD, ermB- linB) was also detected. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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