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Torres J.-M.,Research Center en Sanidad Animal | Andreoletti O.,National Veterinary School of Toulouse | Lacroux C.,National Veterinary School of Toulouse | Prieto I.,Research Center en Sanidad Animal | And 4 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and BSErelated disorders have been associated with a single major prion strain. Recently, 2 atypical, presumably sporadic forms of BSE have been associated with 2 distinct prion strains that are characterized mainly by distinct Western blot profi les of abnormal protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres), named high-type (BSE-H) and low-type (BSE-L), that also differed from classical BSE. We characterized 5 atypical BSE-H isolates by analyzing their molecular and neuropathologic properties during transmission in transgenic mice expressing homologous bovine prion protein. Unexpectedly, in several inoculated animals, strain features emerged that were highly similar to those of classical BSE agent. These fi ndings demonstrate the capability of an atypical bovine prion to acquire classical BSE-like properties during propagation in a homologous bovine prion protein context and support the view that the epidemic BSE agent could have originated from such a cattle prion. Source

Cloeckaert A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Praud K.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Lefevre M.,Center National Of Reference Des Salmonella | Doublet B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2010

We report the dissemination of a conjugative IncI1 plasmid carrying blaCTX-M-1, conferring resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, in Salmonella enterica isolates from poultry and humans in France from 2003 to 2008. By IncI1 plasmid subtyping, this plasmid was shown to be genetically related to that found in Escherichia coli isolates from healthy poultry in France. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2009-1-3-02 | Award Amount: 4.15M | Year: 2010

The major outstanding challenges of orbivirus vaccine research is to develop vaccines that can afford a broad protective immune response against as many serotypes of each virus as possible, and to develop a high throughput DIVA assay (e.g. an ELISA). This project will use a coordinated multipartner approach to address these issues, to develop new experimental prototype vaccines and diagnostic approaches. It will build on specific expertise and reagents that are only available within the consortium and will link out to other international efforts in USA and South Africa to develop improved vaccines for these diseases. The consortium includes a number of industrial partners who are already active in vaccine manufacture for these and other veterinary diseases, in order to ensure that the findings of the research are transferred as soon as possible into commercial vaccines for European livestock. The project also includes two SMEs, who will be specifically involved in the development of DIVA compatible diagnostic tests. In summary, the specific objectives of the project will be: to develop multivalent vaccines using different approaches for Orbiviruses responsible for livestock diseases, in particular, Bluetongue Virus (BTV), African Horse Sickness Virus (AHSV) and Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV); to understand the best vaccination strategy to elicit multi-serotype protection for these viruses in livestock and analyze immune responses for each of the novel vaccines developed for breadth of protection against multiple serotypes; and to develop DIVA compatible diagnostics that will work with the new vaccines developed in order to differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals.

Bazin E.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Mourot A.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Humpage A.R.,Cooperative Research Center for Water Quality and Treatment | Fessard V.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis | Year: 2010

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a cyanotoxin produced by certain freshwater cyanobacteria, causes human intoxications and animal mortalities. CYN is a potent inhibitor of protein- and glutathione-synthesis. Preliminary evidence for in vivo tumor initiation has been found in mice but the mechanism remains unclear. Several in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that CYN is genotoxic and requires metabolic activation. In the present study, the genotoxicity of CYN was assessed in human hepatocyte and enterocyte cell lines, which are models for CYN target organs. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was conducted on liver-derived HepaRG cells and colon-derived Caco-2 cells. Each cell-type was exposed to CYN in both the differentiated and the undifferentiated states, and both with and without the cytochrome P450 inhibitor, ketoconazole, to determine the involvement of metabolism in CYN genotoxicity. CYN increased the frequency of micronuclei in binucleated cells (MNBNC) in both Caco-2 and HepaRG cells. Moreover, ketoconazole reduced both the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity caused by CYN. Our results confirm the involvement of metabolic activation of CYN in mediating its toxicity and suggest that CYN is progenotoxic. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Marois C.,British Petroleum | Dory D.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Fablet C.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Madec F.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Kobisch M.,British Petroleum
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2010

Aims: A triplex real-time PCR assay to quantify Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in specimens from live and dead pigs was developed and validated. The minimal dose of Myc. hyopneumoniae required to induce pneumonia in specific pathogen-free pigs was determined. Methods and Results: This TaqMan test simultaneously detected three genes encoding the proteins P46, P97 and P102. All Myc. hyopneumoniae strains analysed were detected, including strains isolated in three countries (France, England and Switzerland) and from several pig farms (n = 33), and the test was specific. The estimated detection thresholds were 1·3 genome equivalents (μl -1) for the targets defined in p97 and p102 genes and 13 genome equivalents (μl -1) for the segment defined in the p46 gene. This test was used to quantify Myc. hyopneumoniae in specimens sampled from experimentally infected pigs. In live pigs, c. 10 7, 10 8 and 10 10 genome equivalents (ml -1) of Myc. hyopneumoniae were detected in the nasal cavities, tonsils and trachea samples, respectively. In dead pigs, 10 8-10 10 genome equivalents (ml -1) of Myc. hyopneumoniae were detected in the lung tissue with pneumonia. The estimated minimal dose of Myc. hyopneumoniae required to induce pneumonia was 10 5 colour-changing units (CCU) per pig (corresponding to 10 8 mycoplasmas). Conclusion: The triplex RT-PCR test was validated and can be used for testing samples taken on the pig farms. Significance and Impact of the Study: This test should be a very useful tool in pig herds to control enzootic pneumonia or healthy carrier pigs and to study the dynamics of Myc. hyopneumoniae infections. © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology. Source

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