Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments

Maisons-Alfort, France

Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments

Maisons-Alfort, France
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Cloeckaert A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Praud K.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Lefevre M.,Center National Of Reference Des Salmonella | Doublet B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2010

We report the dissemination of a conjugative IncI1 plasmid carrying blaCTX-M-1, conferring resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, in Salmonella enterica isolates from poultry and humans in France from 2003 to 2008. By IncI1 plasmid subtyping, this plasmid was shown to be genetically related to that found in Escherichia coli isolates from healthy poultry in France. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2009-1-3-02 | Award Amount: 4.15M | Year: 2010

The major outstanding challenges of orbivirus vaccine research is to develop vaccines that can afford a broad protective immune response against as many serotypes of each virus as possible, and to develop a high throughput DIVA assay (e.g. an ELISA). This project will use a coordinated multipartner approach to address these issues, to develop new experimental prototype vaccines and diagnostic approaches. It will build on specific expertise and reagents that are only available within the consortium and will link out to other international efforts in USA and South Africa to develop improved vaccines for these diseases. The consortium includes a number of industrial partners who are already active in vaccine manufacture for these and other veterinary diseases, in order to ensure that the findings of the research are transferred as soon as possible into commercial vaccines for European livestock. The project also includes two SMEs, who will be specifically involved in the development of DIVA compatible diagnostic tests. In summary, the specific objectives of the project will be: to develop multivalent vaccines using different approaches for Orbiviruses responsible for livestock diseases, in particular, Bluetongue Virus (BTV), African Horse Sickness Virus (AHSV) and Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV); to understand the best vaccination strategy to elicit multi-serotype protection for these viruses in livestock and analyze immune responses for each of the novel vaccines developed for breadth of protection against multiple serotypes; and to develop DIVA compatible diagnostics that will work with the new vaccines developed in order to differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals.

Bazin E.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Mourot A.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Humpage A.R.,Cooperative Research Center for Water Quality and Treatment | Fessard V.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis | Year: 2010

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a cyanotoxin produced by certain freshwater cyanobacteria, causes human intoxications and animal mortalities. CYN is a potent inhibitor of protein- and glutathione-synthesis. Preliminary evidence for in vivo tumor initiation has been found in mice but the mechanism remains unclear. Several in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that CYN is genotoxic and requires metabolic activation. In the present study, the genotoxicity of CYN was assessed in human hepatocyte and enterocyte cell lines, which are models for CYN target organs. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was conducted on liver-derived HepaRG cells and colon-derived Caco-2 cells. Each cell-type was exposed to CYN in both the differentiated and the undifferentiated states, and both with and without the cytochrome P450 inhibitor, ketoconazole, to determine the involvement of metabolism in CYN genotoxicity. CYN increased the frequency of micronuclei in binucleated cells (MNBNC) in both Caco-2 and HepaRG cells. Moreover, ketoconazole reduced both the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity caused by CYN. Our results confirm the involvement of metabolic activation of CYN in mediating its toxicity and suggest that CYN is progenotoxic. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Botrel M.-A.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Haenni M.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Morignat E.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Sulpice P.,Federation des Eleveurs et Veterinaires en Convention | And 2 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2010

The goal of this study was to estimate the distribution of pathogens, as well as their antimicrobial resistance pattern, in cows affected by clinical or subclinical mastitis in the Rhône-Alpes region of France. A total of 1770 samples were taken between January 2007 and March 2008, leading to the identification of 1631 bacterial isolates. Streptococcus uberis (22.1%), Escherichia coli (16%), and coagulase-positive staphylococci (15.8%) were identified as the major causative agents of clinical mastitis, whereas coagulase-positive staphylococci (30.2%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (13.7%), and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (9.3%) were predominantly implicated in subclinical mastitis. Yet, in both types of mastitis, about 20% of all cases were due to a large number of different bacterial species that were isolated at a low frequency (<5%), which cannot be considered as minor (e.g., Klebsiella spp.) or noncontagious (e.g., Corynebacterium spp.). The overall proportion of antibiotic resistance was low, except for penicillin G in staphylococci, as well as for macrolides and tetracycline in streptococci. Yet, these resistance proportions were much lower than those reported in human medicine. Besides providing up-to-date information on mastitis in France, this survey also indicates the prudent use of antibiotics by veterinarians. As a result, this study suggests that the risk of transmission of resistant bacteria from milk or milk products to human is very limited, even in case of consumption of raw milk. However, it also confirms the fact that attention must be maintained to avoid any emergence of such resistant bacteria. © 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Marois C.,British Petroleum | Dory D.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Fablet C.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Madec F.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Kobisch M.,British Petroleum
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2010

Aims: A triplex real-time PCR assay to quantify Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in specimens from live and dead pigs was developed and validated. The minimal dose of Myc. hyopneumoniae required to induce pneumonia in specific pathogen-free pigs was determined. Methods and Results: This TaqMan test simultaneously detected three genes encoding the proteins P46, P97 and P102. All Myc. hyopneumoniae strains analysed were detected, including strains isolated in three countries (France, England and Switzerland) and from several pig farms (n = 33), and the test was specific. The estimated detection thresholds were 1·3 genome equivalents (μl -1) for the targets defined in p97 and p102 genes and 13 genome equivalents (μl -1) for the segment defined in the p46 gene. This test was used to quantify Myc. hyopneumoniae in specimens sampled from experimentally infected pigs. In live pigs, c. 10 7, 10 8 and 10 10 genome equivalents (ml -1) of Myc. hyopneumoniae were detected in the nasal cavities, tonsils and trachea samples, respectively. In dead pigs, 10 8-10 10 genome equivalents (ml -1) of Myc. hyopneumoniae were detected in the lung tissue with pneumonia. The estimated minimal dose of Myc. hyopneumoniae required to induce pneumonia was 10 5 colour-changing units (CCU) per pig (corresponding to 10 8 mycoplasmas). Conclusion: The triplex RT-PCR test was validated and can be used for testing samples taken on the pig farms. Significance and Impact of the Study: This test should be a very useful tool in pig herds to control enzootic pneumonia or healthy carrier pigs and to study the dynamics of Myc. hyopneumoniae infections. © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

Millour S.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Noel L.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Kadar A.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Chekri R.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2011

This paper describes a validation process for the simultaneous analysis of 21 elements: lithium (Li), aluminium (Al), vanadium (V), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), gallium (Ga), germanium (Ge), arsenic (As), strontium (Sr), molybdenum (Mo), silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), tin (Sn), antimony (Sb), tellurium (Te), barium (Ba), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in food samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after closed-vessel microwave digestion. This validation was realized in parallel with the analysis of the 1322 food samples of the second French Total Diet Study (TDS) by the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) of the French Food Safety Agency (AFSSA). Several criteria such as linearity, limits of quantification (LOQ), specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Furthermore, the method was supervised by several internal and external quality controls (IQC and EQC). Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for the routine determination of these 21 essential and non-essential elements in foodstuffs with acceptable analytical performance. © 2010.

Chaire P.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Haenni M.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Meunier D.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Botree M.-A.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2010

Feces from 2,255 cattle (calves, young beef cattle, and culled cows) were collected at slaughter from nine departments across France. Campylobacter was recovered from 16.5% of the 2,255 samples (C. jejuni from 12.8% and C. coli from 3.7%), predominantly from calves. Antimicrobial resistance to six antibiotics of medical and/or veterinary interest was tested with the E-test. Resistance to tetracycline was found in most isolates (52.8% of C. jejuni isolates and 88.1% of C. coli isolates) in contrast to low but consistent resistance to ampicillin and erythromycin. Only two C. coli isolates were resistant to gentamicin. Multiple resistance was frequently detected in C. jejuni and C. coli isolates, and 0.8% (3 of 372) of the isolates were resistant to five of the six antimicrobials. An upward trend in the resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones in C. jejuni from calves was found; resistance to nalidixic acid reached 70.4% in 2006 and fluoroquinolone resistance increased from 29.7 to 70.4% during 2002 through 2006. All data were analyzed in parallel using clinical breakpoints or epidemiological cutoff values, and the results overlapped largely, except those for gentamicin. This 5-year survey (2002 through 2006) gives the first overview of the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of C. jejuni and C. coli in cattle in France and documents to what extent cattle may contribute to the environmental reservoir of Campylobacter in France in the context of recurrent reports on links between human campylobacterioses and livestock. The results underline a notable increase in the resistance to fluoroquinolones in C. jejuni from cattle that may be of significant importance for public health. Copyright ©. International Association for Food Protection.

Kerouanton A.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Marault M.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Petit L.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Grout J.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2010

Listeria monocytogenes serotyping is commonly used as the first level of characterisation in the epidemiological surveillance of food and clinical isolates and is therefore widely accepted. The aim of this study was to define a scheme for multiplex molecular serotyping of L. monocytogenes based on a previously described PCR assay and then to evaluate and compare this new procedure with conventional serotyping by agglutination. The study included 1204 Listeria strains collected from food products in France, from March 2005 to October 2006. Two multiplex PCR assays were designed to cluster L. monocytogenes strains into five molecular serogroups: IIa, IIb, IIc, IVa, IVb in agreement with the most commonly encountered serotypes. Amplification of the prfA gene was added to the multiplex PCR to check for L. monocytogenes species; forty-eight (4%) of the isolates tested belonged to the genus Listeria but were not L. monocytogenes. Using this first multiplex PCR, the concordance between conventional and molecular methods was 90.6%, 97.8%, 100% and 100%, for 1/2a, 1/2c, 1/2b and 4b serotypes respectively. False results were observed for some atypical 1/2a, 3a and 1/2c strains. Therefore, this lack of specificity was resolved by using an additional PCR assay based on amplification of the flaA gene, a specific target of 1/2a and 3a strains. When applying the second PCR assay to IIa and IIc molecular serogroup strains, total agreement was obtained between molecular and conventional serotyping methods with a lower level of discrimination for the molecular one. This study proposes to define a strategy for molecular serotyping using both PCR assays: a multiplex and the flaA PCR in order to assign the atypical 1/2a, 3a and 1/2c strains. Moreover, prs gene detection was added for Listeria genus recognition as a positive control in association with flaA detection. Indeed, this molecular serotyping scheme could be considered as a useful and rapid method for first-level characterisation of the most frequently encountered L. monocytogenes serotypes. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chauzat M.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Martel A.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Cougoule N.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Porta P.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2011

The frequency of occurrence and relative concentration of 44 pesticides in apicultural (Apis mellifera) matrices collected from five French locations (24 apiaries) were assessed from 2002 to 2005. The number and nature of the pesticides investigated varied with the matrices examined-living honeybees, pollen loads, honey, and beeswax. Pollen loads and beeswax had the highest frequency of pesticide occurrence among the apiary matrices examined in the present study, whereas honey samples had the lowest. The imidacloprid group and the fipronil group were detected in sufficient amounts in all matrices to allow statistical comparisons. Some seasonal variation was shown when residues were identified in pollen loads. Given the results (highest frequency of presence) and practical aspects (easy to collect; matrix with no turnover, unlike with bees that are naturally renewed), pollen loads were the best matrix for assessing the presence of pesticide residues in the environment in our given conditions. © 2010 SETAC.

Torres J.-M.,Research Center en Sanidad Animal | Andreoletti O.,National Veterinary School of Toulouse | Lacroux C.,National Veterinary School of Toulouse | Prieto I.,Research Center en Sanidad Animal | And 4 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and BSErelated disorders have been associated with a single major prion strain. Recently, 2 atypical, presumably sporadic forms of BSE have been associated with 2 distinct prion strains that are characterized mainly by distinct Western blot profi les of abnormal protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres), named high-type (BSE-H) and low-type (BSE-L), that also differed from classical BSE. We characterized 5 atypical BSE-H isolates by analyzing their molecular and neuropathologic properties during transmission in transgenic mice expressing homologous bovine prion protein. Unexpectedly, in several inoculated animals, strain features emerged that were highly similar to those of classical BSE agent. These fi ndings demonstrate the capability of an atypical bovine prion to acquire classical BSE-like properties during propagation in a homologous bovine prion protein context and support the view that the epidemic BSE agent could have originated from such a cattle prion.

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