Le Bosc-Roger-en-Roumois, France
Le Bosc-Roger-en-Roumois, France

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Couve S.,Laboratoire Of Genetique Oncologique Of Lecole Pratique Des Hautes Etudes Ephe | Couve S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Couve S.,Center Expert National Cancers Rares a | Ladroue C.,Laboratoire Of Genetique Oncologique Of Lecole Pratique Des Hautes Etudes Ephe | And 37 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2014

The classic model of tumor suppression implies that malignant transformation requires full "two-hit" inactivation of a tumor-suppressor gene. However, more recent work in mice has led to the proposal of a "continuum" model that involves more fluid concepts such as gene dosage-sensitivity and tissue specificity. Mutations in the tumor-suppressor gene von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) are associated with a complex spectrum of conditions. Homozygotes or compound heterozygotes for the R200W germline mutation in VHL have Chuvash polycythemia, whereas heterozygous carriers are free of disease. Individuals with classic, heterozygous VHL mutations have VHL disease and are at high risk of multiple tumors (e.g., CNS hemangioblastomas, pheochromocytoma, and renal cell carcinoma). We report here an atypical family bearing two VHL gene mutations in cis (R200W and R161Q), together with phenotypic analysis, structural modeling, functional, and transcriptomic studies of these mutants in comparison with classical mutants involved in the different VHL phenotypes. We demonstrate that the complex pattern of disease manifestations observed in VHL syndrome is perfectly correlated with a gradient of VHL protein (pVHL) dysfunction in hypoxia signaling pathways. Thus, by studying naturally occurring familial mutations, our work validates in humans the "continuum" model of tumor suppression. © 2014 AACR.


PubMed | Agence Francaise de Lutte contre le Dopage AFLD, University Paris - Sud and Hemarina
Type: | Journal: Drug testing and analysis | Year: 2016

Manipulation of blood and blood components is prohibited in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). This includes the use of blood substitutes to increase oxygen transport, like haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs), which are compounds derived from haemoglobin. Despite their medical interest, the first generation of HBOCs had serious adverse effects and was abandoned. However, new studies are now exploiting the properties of marine worm haemoglobins, which circulate as giant extracellular complexes with high oxygen-binding capacities. HEMOXYCarrier (HC), developed by Hemarina, is one of the most advanced and promising HBOCs, and HC may become a tempting doping tool for athletes in the future. Here, HC detection in plasma/serum was evaluated with the method used to detect the first HBOCs, based on electrophoresis and heme peroxidase properties. An HC-derived product was identified in human plasma up to 72h after in vitro incubation at 37C. HC degradation also induced methemalbumin formation. After injecting HC at the effective dose of 200mg/kg into mice, the HC-derived product was detected only for a few hours and no accumulation of methemalbumin was observed. Due to this limited detection window in vivo, measuring specific worm globin degradation products by mass spectrometry might be an alternative for future anti-doping analyses. Copyright 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


PubMed | German Sport University Cologne, Agence Francaise de Lutte contre le Dopage AFLD and Bayer AG
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Drug testing and analysis | Year: 2016

The development of new therapeutics potentially exhibiting performance-enhancing properties implicates the risk of their misuse by athletes in amateur and elite sports. Such drugs necessitate preventive anti-doping research for consideration in sports drug testing programmes. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers represent an emerging class of therapeutics that allows for increasing erythropoiesis in patients. BAY 85-3934 is a novel HIF stabilizer, which is currently undergoing phase-2 clinical trials. Consequently, the comprehensive characterization of BAY 85-3934 and human urinary metabolites as well as the implementation of these analytes into routine doping controls is of great importance. The mass spectrometric behaviour of the HIF stabilizer drug candidate BAY 85-3934 and a glucuronidated metabolite (BAY-348) were characterized by electrospray ionization-(tandem) mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(/MS)) and multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MS


PubMed | German Sport University Cologne, Agence Francaise de Lutte contre le Dopage AFLD and Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf
Type: | Journal: Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis | Year: 2015

Chlorazanil (Ordipan, N-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) is a diuretic agent and as such prohibited in sport according to the regulations of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Despite its introduction into clinical practice in the late 1950s, the worldwide very first two adverse analytical findings were registered only in 2014, being motive for an in-depth investigation of these cases. Both individuals denied the intake of the drug; however, the athletes did declare the use of the antimalarial prophylactic agent proguanil due to temporary residences in African countries. A structural similarity between chlorazanil and proguanil is given but no direct metabolic relation has been reported in the scientific literature. Moreover, chlorazanil has not been confirmed as a drug impurity of proguanil. Proguanil however is metabolized in humans to N-(4-chlorophenyl)-biguanide, which represents a chemical precursor in the synthesis of chlorazanil. In the presence of formic acid, formaldehyde, or formic acid esters, N-(4-chlorophenyl)-biguanide converts to chlorazanil. In order to probe for potential sources of the chlorazanil detected in the doping control samples, drug formulations containing proguanil and urine samples of individuals using proguanil as antimalarial drug were subjected to liquid chromatography-high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry. In addition, in vitro simulations with 4-chlorophenyl-biguanide and respective reactants were conducted in urine and resulting specimens analyzed for the presence of chlorazanil. While no chlorazanil was found in drug formulations, the urine samples of 2 out of 4 proguanil users returned findings for chlorazanil at low ng/mL levels, similar to the adverse analytical findings in the doping control samples. Further, in the presence of formaldehyde, formic acid and related esters, 4-chlorophenyl-biguanide was found to produce chlorazanil in human urine, suggesting that the detection of the obsolete diuretic agent was indeed the result of artefact formation and not of the illicit use of a prohibited substance.


PubMed | Fundacio Institute Mar DInvestigacions Mediques IMIM, Laboratorio Of Analises Of Dopagem Lad, Madrid Anti Doping Laboratory, Ghent University and 8 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Drug testing and analysis | Year: 2016

Testosterone and related compounds are the most recurrent doping substances. The steroid profile, consisting of the quantification of testosterone and its metabolites, has been described as the most significant biomarker to detect doping with pseudo-endogenous anabolic steroids. The steroidal module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was launched by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in 2014. To assess the value of introducing the module to its anti-doping programme, the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) decided to analyze retrospectively the steroid profile data of 4195 urine samples, collected from 879 male football players and analyzed in 12 WADA-accredited laboratories between 2008 and mid-2013. This study focused on the evaluation of T/E ratios. The coefficient of variation (CV) and the adaptive model were the two statistical models used to study the longitudinal follow-up. A CV of 46% was determined to be the maximal natural intra-individual variation of the T/E when the sequence consisted of single data points analyzed in different laboratories. The adaptive model showed some profiles with an atypical T/E sequence and also enabled an estimate of the prevalence of external factors impacting the T/E sequences. Despite the limitations of this retrospective study, it clearly showed that the longitudinal and individual follow-up of the T/E biomarker of the players is a good tool for target testing in football. UEFA has therefore decided to implement the steroidal module of the ABP from the start of the next European football season in September 2015. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


PubMed | Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Medecine Generale, Plate forme de Genomique, CNRS Gustave Roussy Institute and 11 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer research | Year: 2014

The classic model of tumor suppression implies that malignant transformation requires full two-hit inactivation of a tumor-suppressor gene. However, more recent work in mice has led to the proposal of a continuum model that involves more fluid concepts such as gene dosage-sensitivity and tissue specificity. Mutations in the tumor-suppressor gene von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) are associated with a complex spectrum of conditions. Homozygotes or compound heterozygotes for the R200W germline mutation in VHL have Chuvash polycythemia, whereas heterozygous carriers are free of disease. Individuals with classic, heterozygous VHL mutations have VHL disease and are at high risk of multiple tumors (e.g., CNS hemangioblastomas, pheochromocytoma, and renal cell carcinoma). We report here an atypical family bearing two VHL gene mutations in cis (R200W and R161Q), together with phenotypic analysis, structural modeling, functional, and transcriptomic studies of these mutants in comparison with classical mutants involved in the different VHL phenotypes. We demonstrate that the complex pattern of disease manifestations observed in VHL syndrome is perfectly correlated with a gradient of VHL protein (pVHL) dysfunction in hypoxia signaling pathways. Thus, by studying naturally occurring familial mutations, our work validates in humans the continuum model of tumor suppression.


Leuenberger N.,University of Geneva | Reichel C.,Doping Control Laboratory | Lasne F.,Agence Francaise de Lutte Contre le Dopage AFLD
Bioanalysis | Year: 2012

Stimulation of erythropoiesis is one of the most efficient ways of doping. This type of doping is advantageous for aerobic physical exercise and of particular interest to endurance athletes. Erythropoiesis, which takes place in bone marrow, is under the control of EPO, a hormone secreted primarily by the kidneys when the arterial oxygen tension decreases. In certain pathological disorders, such as chronic renal failure, the production of EPO is insufficient and results in anemia. The pharmaceutical industry has, thus, been very interested in developing drugs that stimulate erythropoiesis. With this aim, various strategies have been, and continue to be, envisaged, giving rise to an expanding range of drugs that are good candidates for doping. Anti-doping control has had to deal with this situation by developing appropriate methods for their detection. This article presents an overview of both the drugs and the corresponding methods of detection, and thus follows a roughly chronological order. © 2012 Future Science Ltd.


Chaabo A.,Agence Francaise de Lutte Contre le Dopage Afld | Chaabo A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | De Ceaurriz J.,Agence Francaise de Lutte Contre le Dopage Afld | Buisson C.,Agence Francaise de Lutte Contre le Dopage Afld | And 2 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Tetracosactide (Synacthen), a synthetic analogue of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), can be used as a doping agent to increase the secretion of glucocorticoids by adrenal glands. The only published method for anti-doping control of this drug in plasma relies on purification by immunoaffinity chromatography and LC/MS/MS analysis. Its limit of detection is 300 pg/mL, which corresponds to the peak value observed 12 h after 1 mg Synacthen IM administration. We report here a more sensitive method based on preparation of plasma by cation exchange chromatography and solid-phase extraction and analysis by LC/MS/MS with positive-mode electrospray ionization using 7-38 ACTH as internal standard. Identification of Synacthen was performed using two product ions, m/z 671.5 and m/z 223.0, from the parent [M∈+∈5H]5+ ion, m/z 587.4. The recovery was estimated at 70%. A linear calibration curve was obtained from 25 to 600 pg/mL (R 2∈>∈0.99). The lower limit of detection was 8 pg/mL (S/N∈>∈3). The lower limit of quantification was 15 pg/mL (S/N∈>∈10; CV%∈<∈20%). The performance of the method was illustrated by an 8-h kinetic analysis of plasma samples from nine subjects submitted to IM injections of either Synacthen® (five subjects) or Synacthen® Depot, the slow-release form of the drug (four subjects). Concentrations of Synacthen between 16 and 310 pg/mL were observed. A sensitive method for quantitation of Synacthen in plasma is proposed for anti-doping control analyses. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Kiss A.,CNRS Institute of Analytical Sciences | Lucio M.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Fildier A.,CNRS Institute of Analytical Sciences | Buisson C.,Agence Francaise de Lutte contre le Dopage AFLD | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

We have detected differences in metabolite levels between doped athletes, clean athletes, and volunteers (non athletes). This outcome is obtained by comparing results of measurements from two analytical platforms: UHPLC-QTOF/MS and FT-ICR/MS. Twenty-seven urine samples tested positive for glucocorticoids or beta-2-agonists and twenty samples coming from volunteers and clean athletes were analyzed with the two different mass spectrometry approaches using both positive and negative electrospray ionization modes. Urine is a highly complex matrix containing thousands of metabolites having different chemical properties and a high dynamic range. We used multivariate analysis techniques to unravel this huge data set. Thus, the several groups we created were studied by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Square regression (PLS-DA and OPLS) in the search of discriminating m/z values. The selected variables were annotated and placed on pathway by using MassTRIX. © 2013 Kiss et al.

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