Agence francaise de lutte contre le dopage

Saint-Germain-de-Prinçay, France

Agence francaise de lutte contre le dopage

Saint-Germain-de-Prinçay, France
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Bigard X.,Agence Francaise de Lutte Contre le Dopage
Pratiques en Nutrition | Year: 2013

In athletes, protein requirements and recommendation have to be discussed according to the specificities of sports discipline and level of practice. The nutritional efficiency of proteins, including the digestibility and speed of absorption of dietary amino acids is important to consider for muscle building during recovery of intense exercises. Milk proteins and derived from milk products (casein and/or whey) are efficient to improve muscle protein synthesis. These proteins have to be consumed just at the end of intense exercise, especially resistance exercise, and no more than 20-25 g of high-quality protein for 80-95 kg body weight. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Collomp K.,University Paris - Sud | Collomp K.,University of Orléans | Baillot A.,University of Québec | Baillot A.,Institute Of Recherche Of Lhopital Montfort | And 7 more authors.
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2016

The adrenal and gonadal stress steroids [i.e., cortisol, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)] have gathered considerable attention in the last few decades due to their very broad physiological and psychological actions. Their diurnal patterns have become a particular focus following new data implicating altered diurnal hormone patterns in various endocrine, behavioral and cardiovascular risk profiles. In this review of the current literature, we present a brief overview of the altered diurnal patterns of these hormones that may occur in relation to chronic stress, nutritional behaviors, physical exercise, drugs and sleep deprivation/shift. We also present data on the altered diurnal hormone patterns implicated in cardiometabolic and psychiatric/neurologic diseases, cancer and other complex pathologies. We consider the occasionally discrepant results of the studies, and summarize the current knowledge in this new field of interest, underlining the potential effects on both biological and psychological functioning, and assess the implications of these effects. Last, we conclude with some practical considerations and perspectives. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Bigard X.,Agence francaise de lutte contre le dopage
Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence | Year: 2017

The main purpose of this review is to examine the patterns and prevalence of doping among child and adolescent athletes. The number of abnormal test findings recorded by anti-doping authorities worldwide cannot be considered to be a reliable picture of the use of prohibited substances and methods. Only specific questionnaires to detect the use of prohibited substances are useful to identify the extent of doping despite the risk of biased responses in self-reported declarations. Based on the different surveys and types of questionnaires it is believed that 1.5 to 6% of young athletes use prohibited substances. Prohibited substances are also being used out the sportive framework. Several studies showed that approximately 3 to 11% of non-athlete students use anabolic steroids. There were also significant associations between the use of anabolic steroids and the use of marijuana, cocaine, cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, alcohol, unhealthy nutrition, etc. The use of nutritional supplements by athletes is associated with a twofold risk, first to use adulterated supplements, either by accidental contamination or by deliberate spiking, and second to use prohibited substances with doping being viewed as a gradual progression from the use of nutritional supplements to the misuse of harder drugs. That is why nutritional supplements should not be used by young athletes (under 18 years) except where medically indicated. Doping has of multifactorial origins; the immediate family, friends, team staff, and sport doctors mainly exacerbate individual psychological factors. The estimated prevalence of doping in young athletes, and the well-known adverse effects of most prohibited substances, including hormones, anabolic steroids and stimulants, on developing endocrine and nervous systems in growing athletes, support the development of a specific policy for the prevention of doping in sports, especially designed for young athletes, their family, medical and team staffs. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Collomp K.,University of Orléans | Buisson C.,Agence Francaise de Lutte Contre le Dopage | Lasne F.,Agence Francaise de Lutte Contre le Dopage | Collomp R.,Nice University Hospital Center
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2015

The dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) concentrations during acute and chronic exercise (training) have been investigated only fairly recently. DHEA is generally preferred to DHEA-S for exploring the acute exercise repercussions in laboratory or field tests because of its shorter elimination half-life. Conversely, DHEA-S is preferred to estimate chronic adaptations. Both can be measured noninvasively in saliva, and it is therefore possible to follow these hormone responses in elite athletes during competitive events and in healthy and pathological populations, without imposing additional stress. Indeed, the correlation between saliva and serum concentrations is high for steroid hormones, both at rest and during exercise. In this review, we will first summarize the current knowledge on the DHEA/DHEA-S responses to exercise and examine the potential modulating factors: exercise intensity, gender, age, and training. We will then discuss the ergogenic effects that athletes expect from the exogenous administration of DHEA and the antidoping methods of analysis currently used to detect this abuse. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Agence Francaise de Lutte contre le Dopage and University Paris - Sud
Type: | Journal: Steroids | Year: 2016

It is generally acknowledged in the sporting world that glucocorticoid (GC) use enhances physical performance. This pharmacological class is therefore banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in in-competition samples after systemic but not local (defined as any route other than oral, intravenous, intramuscular or rectal) administration, which thus allows athletes to use GCs for therapeutic purposes. According to the 2016 WADA list, the urine reporting level for all GCs is set at 30ng/ml to distinguish between the authorized and banned routes of administration. The actual data on the ergogenic effects of GC intake are nevertheless fairly recent, with the first study showing improved physical performance with systemic GC administration dating back only to 2007. Moreover, the studies over the last decade coupling ergogenic and metabolic investigations in humans during and after GC intake have shown discrepant results. Similarly, urine discrimination between banned and authorized GC use remains complex, but it seems likely to be improved thanks to new analytical studies and the inclusion of the authorized GC uses (local routes of administration and out-of-competition samples) in the WADA monitoring program. In this review, we first summarize the current knowledge on the ergogenic and metabolic GC effects in humans during various types of exercise. We then present the antidoping legislation and methods of analysis currently used to detect GC abuse and conclude with some practical considerations and perspectives.

Llouquet J.L.,French Boxing Federation | Crepin N.,Agence francaise de lutte contre le dopage | Lasne F.,Agence francaise de lutte contre le dopage
Drug Testing and Analysis | Year: 2013

Luteinizing hormone (LH) is physiologically produced by the anterior pituitary gland. Male athletes may use pharmaceutical LH for doping since it increases the production of testosterone by testes. This hormone is thus on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list of substances prohibited for males. Anti-doping laboratories perform the assay of this hormone in urine and report abnormally elevated results. We observed a highly significant prevalence of abnormal results in samples taken after a boxing match. Comparison of the descriptive statistics for 426 LH values observed in boxing and other sports showed significant differences. An experimental study comparing urinary LH levels in 17 boxers before and after a match demonstrated a clear increase after the match. The same observation was made for urinary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in all of the eight boxers tested for this other pituitary gonadotropin. These observations have consequences for anti-doping controls, as the reference range for urinary LH levels must take into account the specificities of boxers. They also suggest consequences for the health of boxers. Although to our knowledge such observations have never been described, other pituitary disorders have been reported. Our results deserve further investigation from a medical point of view. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Martin L.,Agence Francaise de Lutte contre le Dopage | Chaabo A.,Agence Francaise de Lutte contre le Dopage | Lasne F.,Agence Francaise de Lutte contre le Dopage
Drug Testing and Analysis | Year: 2015

As a synthetic analogue of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), tetracosactide is prohibited in sport by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method is proposed for detection of this drug in plasma. Since its structure corresponds to the 24N-terminal of the 39 amino acids of the natural endogenous peptide ACTH, tetracosactide can be detected with a commercial ELISA kit for ACTH that uses antibodies, the epitopes of which are located in the 1-24 part of ACTH. However, an essential condition for detection specificity is the preliminary total clearance of endogenous ACTH in the plasma samples. This is achieved by a preparative step based on cation-exchange chromatography before ELISA. The method is specific and sensitive (LOD: 30pg/mL) and may be used as a screening analysis in anti-doping control. The pre-analytical conditions are shown to be of the upmost importance and recommendations for blood collection (EDTA tubes), sample transport (4°C) and plasma sample storage (-20°C) are presented. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Marijon E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Marijon E.,University of Paris Descartes | Tafflet M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Tafflet M.,University of Paris Descartes | And 17 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND-: Although such data are available for young competitive athletes, the prevalence, characteristics, and outcome of sports-related sudden death have not been assessed previously in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS-: A prospective and comprehensive national survey was performed throughout France from 2005 to 2010, involving subjects 10 to 75 years of age. Case detection for sports-related sudden death, including resuscitated cardiac arrest, was undertaken via national ambulance service reporting and Web-based screening of media releases. The overall burden of sports-related sudden death was 4.6 cases per million population per year, with 6% of cases occurring in young competitive athletes. Sensitivity analyses used to address suspected underreporting demonstrated an incidence ranging from 5 to 17 new cases per million population per year. More than 90% of cases occurred in the context of recreational sports. The age of subjects was relatively young (mean±SD 46±15 years), with a predominance of men (95%). Although most cases were witnessed (93%), bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation was only commenced in 30.7% of cases. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (odds ratio 3.73, 95% confidence interval 2.19 to 6.39, P<0.0001) and initial use of cardiac defibrillation (odds ratio 3.71, 95% confidence interval 2.07 to 6.64, P<0.0001) were the strongest independent predictors for survival to hospital discharge (15.7%, 95% confidence interval 13.2% to 18.2%). CONCLUSIONS-: Sports-related sudden death in the general population is considerably more common than previously suspected. Most cases are witnessed, yet bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation was only initiated in one third of cases. Given the often predictable setting of sports-related sudden death and that prompt interventions were significantly associated with improved survival, these data have implications for health services planning. Copyright © 2011 American Heart Association.

Kiss A.,CNRS Institute of Analytical Sciences | Bordes C.,CNRS Institute of Analytical Sciences | Buisson C.,Agence Francaise de Lutte Contre le Dopage | Lasne F.,Agence Francaise de Lutte Contre le Dopage | And 2 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2014

Metabonomics has become a very valuable tool and many research fields rely on results coming out from this combination of analytical techniques, chemometric strategies, and biological interpretation. Moreover, the matrices are more and more complex and the implications of the results are often of major importance. In this context, the need for pertinent validation strategies comes naturally. The choice of the appropriate chemometric method remains nevertheless a difficult task due to particularities such as: the number of measured variables, the complexity of the matrix and the purposes of the study. Consequently, this paper presents a detailed metabonomic study on human urine with a special emphasis on the importance of assessing the data's quality. It also describes, step by step, the statistical tools currently used and offers a critical view on some of their limits. In this work, 29 urine samples among which 15 samples obtained from tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol)-consuming athletes, 5 samples provided by volunteers, and 9 samples obtained from athletes were submitted to untargeted analysis by means of ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time-of- flight mass spectrometry. Next, the quality of the obtained data was assessed and the results were compared to those found in databases. Then, unsupervised (principal component analysis (PCA)) and supervised (ANOVA/PCA, partial least-square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), orthogonal PLS-DA) univariate and multivariate statistical methods were applied. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

PubMed | University of New Orleans, CNRS Paris Institute of Molecular Chemistry and Agence Francaise de Lutte Contre le Dopage
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Analytical chemistry | Year: 2016

Nonpolar anabolic steroids are doping agents that typically do not provide strong signals by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) owing especially to the low polarity of the functional groups present. We have investigated the addition of anions, in ammonium salt form, to anabolic steroid samples as ionization enhancers and have confirmed that lower instrumental limits of detection (as low as 10 ng/mL for fluoxymesterone-M) are obtained by fluoride anion attachment mass spectrometry, as compared to ESI(+)/(-) or atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI)(+). Moreover, collision-induced decomposition (CID) spectra of precursor fluoride adducts of the bifunctional steroid reduced pregnenolone (containing two hydroxyl groups) and its d4-analogue provide evidence of regiospecific decompositions after attachment of fluoride anion to a specific hydroxyl group of the steroid. This type of charting of specific CID reaction pathways can offer value to selected reaction monitoring experiments (SRM) as it may result in a gain in selectivity in detection as well as in improvements in quantification.

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