Agence des aires marines protegees

Brest, France

Agence des aires marines protegees

Brest, France
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Lambert C.,CNRS Chizé Center for Biological Studies | Virgili A.,CNRS Chizé Center for Biological Studies | Pettex E.,University of La Rochelle | Delavenne J.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute | And 4 more authors.
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2017

According to the European Union Habitats and Birds Directives, EU Member States must extend the Natura 2000 network to marine ecosystems, through the designation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). However, the initial status of cetacean and seabird communities across European waters is often poorly understood. It is assumed that an MPA is justified where at least 1% of the "national population" of a species is present during at least part of its biological cycle. The aim of the present work was to use model-based cetacean and seabird distribution to assess the networks of existing Natura 2000 sites and offshore proposed areas of biological interest. The habitat models used here were Generalised Additive Models computed from aerial surveys observational data collected during the winter 2011-2012 and the summer 2012 across the English Channel, Bay of Biscay and north-western Mediterranean Sea. Based on these models, a ratio between species relative abundance predicted within each MPA and the total relative abundance predicted over the French Atlantic or Mediterranean marine regions was computed and compared to the 1% threshold. This assessment was conducted for winter and summer independently, providing information for assessing the relevance of individual MPAs and MPA networks at a seasonal scale. Our results showed that the existing network designed for coastal seabird species was relevant in both marine regions. In contrast, a clear shortfall was identified for offshore seabird species in the Atlantic region and for cetaceans in both regions. Moreover, the size of MPAs appeared to be a crucial feature, with larger MPAs being relevant for more species. Finally, we showed that the proposed large offshore areas of interest would constitute a highly relevant network for all offshore species, with e.g. up to 61% of the Globicephalinae population in the Atlantic French waters being present within these areas. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.


Mannocci L.,CNRS Coastal and Marine Environment Laboratory | Laran S.,University of La Rochelle | Monestiez P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Doremus G.,University of La Rochelle | And 4 more authors.
Ecography | Year: 2014

Top predators need to develop optimal strategies of resources and habitats utilization in order to optimize their foraging success. At the individual scale, a predator has to maximize his intake of food while minimizing his cost of foraging to optimize his energetic gain. At the ecosystem scale, we hypothesized that foraging strategies of predators also respond to their general energetic constraints. Predators with energetically costly lifestyles may be constrained to select high quality habitats whereas more phlegmatic predators may occupy both low and high quality habitats. The objectives of this study were 1) to investigate predator responses to heterogeneity in habitat quality with reference to their energetic strategies and 2) to evaluate their responses to contemporaneous versus averaged habitat quality. We collected cetacean and seabird data from an aerial survey in the Southwest Indian Ocean, a region characterized by heterogeneous oceanographic conditions. We classified cetaceans and seabirds into energetic guilds and described their habitats using remotely sensed covariates at contemporaneous and time-averaged resolutions and static covariates. We used generalized additive models to predict their habitats at the regional scale. Strategies of habitat utilization appeared in accordance with predators energetic constraints. Cetaceans responded to the heterogeneity in habitat quality, with higher densities predicted in more productive areas. However, the costly Delphininae appeared to be more dependent on habitat quality (showing a 1-to-13 ratio between the lowest and highest density sectors) than the more phlegmatic sperm and beaked whales (showing only a 1-to-3 ratio). For seabirds, predictions primarily reflected colony locations, although the colony effect was stronger for costly seabirds. Moreover, our results suggest that predators may respond better to persistent oceanographic features. To provide a third dimension to habitat quality, cetacean strategies of utilization of the vertical habitat could be related to the distribution of micronekton in the water column. © 2013 The Univ. of La Rochelle.


Littaye A.,Agence des aires marines protegees | Littaye A.,German Society for International Cooperation | Lardon S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Alloncle N.,Agence des aires marines protegees
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2016

Marine spatial planning (MSP) is an approach that has become essential in order to meet coastal states’ commitments to coordinated management between all stakeholders involved, whether the main objective is for economic, recreational or conservation purposes. The lessons learned from MSP over the last decade revealed the importance of applying multidisciplinary approaches to expand and deepen the involvement of stakeholders from economic and political decision-making spheres, as well as considering social and cultural dimensions. As part of the MSP process in the western tropical Pacific region, a participatory and prospective method was undertaken (the territory game). The method is based on the collective construction of spatial representations by a pool of relevant stakeholders. Both, the spatial outputs, as well as the discussions leading to them, were analysed to evaluate the stakeholders’ current and future visions of the territory. During the methodological pathway, visions developed ranging from a local scale to areas that covered all oceanic compartments, as well as some even considering the entire region. Local and intangible knowledge and opinions were taken into consideration, and helped to create a comprehensive understanding of the context. In the course of the project, participants proposed socio-ecological management solutions with innovative spatial scales. Furthering this effort, the proposals were shaped to the action capacity of the states concerned; in addition, certain Pacific countries were identified as potential leaders for steering some of the proposed actions. This approach can help to promote local actors’ involvement in MSP by a collective analysis as well as to strengthen integration of cultural and social aspects. The whole process is based on biophysical and geopolitical scientific information to improve the credibility of the results. The suggested actions could thus be implemented by each state and the Western Pacific region. Though the integration of the results into high-level decision making was not tested yet, the presented approach would allow an increased acceptance of suggested directions and actions by taking into account the different spatial visions of the relevant actors. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Maier C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Maier C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Watremez P.,Agence des aires marines protegees | Taviani M.,CNR Marine Science Institute | And 5 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Global environmental changes, including ocean acidification, have been identified as a major threat to scleractinian corals. General predictions are that ocean acidification will be detrimental to reef growth and that 40 to more than 80 per cent of present-day reefs will decline during the next 50 years. Coldwater corals (CWCs) are thought to be strongly affected by changes in ocean acidification owing to their distribution in deep and/or cold waters, which naturally exhibit a CaCO 3 saturation state lower than in shallow/warm waters. Calcification was measured in three species of Mediterranean cold-water scleractinian corals (Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata and Desmophyllum dianthus) on-board research vessels and soon after collection. Incubations were performed in ambient sea water. The species M. oculata was additionally incubated in sea water reduced or enriched in CO 2. At ambient conditions, calcification rates ranged between -0.01 and 0.23% d -1. Calcification rates of M. oculata under variable partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2) were the same for ambient and elevated pCO 2 (404 and 867 μatm) with 0.06±0.06% d -1, while calcification was 0.12±0.06% d -1 when pCO 2 was reduced to its pre-industrial level (285 μatm). This suggests that present-day CWC calcification in the Mediterranean Sea has already drastically declined (by 50%) as a consequence of anthropogenic-induced ocean acidification. © 2012 The Royal Society.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EO-2-2015 | Award Amount: 2.67M | Year: 2016

EO4wildlife main objective is to bring large number of multidisciplinary scientists such as biologists, ecologists and ornithologists around the world to collaborate closely together while using European Sentinel Copernicus Earth Observation more heavily and efficiently. In order to reach such important objective, an open service platform and interoperable toolbox will be designed and developed. It will offer high level services that can be accessed by scientists to perform their respective research. The platform front end will be easy-to-use, access and offer dedicated services that will enable them process their geospatial environmental stimulations using Sentinel Earth Observation data that are intelligently combined with other observation sources. Specifically, the EO4wildlife platform will enable the integration of Sentinel data, ARGOS archive databases and real time thematic databank portals, including Wildlifetracking.org, Seabirdtracking.org, and other Earth Observation and MetOcean databases; locally or remotely, and simultaneously. EO4wildlife research specialises in the intelligent management big data, processing, advanced analytics and a Knowledge Base for wildlife migratory behaviour and trends forecast. The research will lead to the development of web-enabled open services using OGC standards for sensor observation and measurements and data processing of heterogeneous geospatial observation data and uncertainties. EO4wildlife will design, implement and validate various scenarios based on real operational use case requirements in the field of wildlife migrations, habitats and behaviour. These include: (1) Management tools for regulatory authorities to achieve real-time advanced decision-making on the protection of protect seabird species; (2) Enhancing scientific knowledge of pelagic fish migrations routes, reproduction and feeding behaviours for better species management; and (3) Setting up tools to assist marine protected areas and management.


De Mol L.,Ghent University | Van Rooij D.,Ghent University | Pirlet H.,Ghent University | Greinert J.,Ghent University | And 5 more authors.
Marine Geology | Year: 2011

In 1948, Le Danois reported for the first time the occurrence of living cold-water coral reefs, the so-called "massifs coralliens", along the European Atlantic continental margin. In 2008, a cruise with R/V Belgica was set out to re-investigate these cold-water corals in the Penmarc'h and Guilvinec Canyons along the Gascogne margin of the Bay of Biscay. During this cruise, an area of 560km2 was studied using multibeam swath bathymetry, CTD casts, ROV observations and USBL-guided boxcoring.Based on the multibeam data and the ROV video imagery, two different cold-water coral reef settings were distinguished. In water depths ranging from 260 to 350. m, mini mounds up to 5. m high, covered by dead cold-water coral rubble, were observed. In between these mounds, soft sediment with a patchy distribution of gravel was recognised. The second setting (350-950. m) features hard substrates with cracks, spurs, cliffs and overhangs. In water depths of 700 to 950. m, both living and dead cold-water corals occur. Occasionally, they form dense coral patches with a diameter of about 10-60. m, characterised by mostly stacked dead coral rubble and a few living specimens. U/Th datings indicate a shift in cold-water coral growth after the Late Glacial Maximum (about 11.5. ka BP) from shallow to deep-water settings.The living cold-water corals from the deeper area occur in a water density (sigma-theta) of 27.35-27.55kgm-3, suggested to be a prerequisite for the growth and distribution of cold-water coral reefs along the northern Atlantic margin. In contrast, the dead cold-water coral fragments in the shallow area occur in a density range of 27.15-27.20kgm-3 which is slightly outside the density range where living cold-water corals normally occur. The presented data suggest that this prerequisite is also valid for coral growth in the deeper canyons (>350m) in the Bay of Biscay. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Maier C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Maier C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Schubert A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Schubert A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Ocean acidification caused by anthropogenic uptake of CO2 is perceived to be a major threat to calcifying organisms. Cold-water corals were thought to be strongly affected by a decrease in ocean pH due to their abundance in deep and cold waters which, in contrast to tropical coral reef waters, will soon become corrosive to calcium carbonate. Calcification rates of two Mediterranean cold-water coral species, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, were measured under variable partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) that ranged between 380 μatm for present-day conditions and 930 μatm for the end of the century. The present study addressed both short- and long-term responses by repeatedly determining calcification rates on the same specimens over a period of 9 months. Besides studying the direct, short-term response to elevated pCO2 levels, the study aimed to elucidate the potential for acclimation of calcification of cold-water corals to ocean acidification. Net calcification of both species was unaffected by the levels of pCO2 investigated and revealed no short-term shock and, therefore, no long-term acclimation in calcification to changes in the carbonate chemistry. There was an effect of time during repeated experiments with increasing net calcification rates for both species, however, as this pattern was found in all treatments, there is no indication that acclimation of calcification to ocean acidification occurred. The use of controls (initial and ambient net calcification rates) indicated that this increase was not caused by acclimation in calcification response to higher pCO2. An extrapolation of these data suggests that calcification of these two cold-water corals will not be affected by the pCO2 level projected at the end of the century. © 2013 Maier et al.


Maier C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Maier C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Bils F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Bils F.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 7 more authors.
Biogeosciences | Year: 2013

The rise of CO2 has been identified as a major threat to life in the ocean. About one-third of the anthropogenic CO2 produced in the last 200 yr has been taken up by the ocean, leading to ocean acidification. Surface seawater pH is projected to decrease by about 0.4 units between the pre-industrial revolution and 2100. The branching cold-water corals Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa are important, habitat-forming species in the deep Mediterranean Sea. Although previous research has investigated the abundance and distribution of these species, little is known regarding their ecophysiology and potential responses to global environmental change. A previous study indicated that the rate of calcification of these two species remained constant up to 1000 μatm CO2, a value that is at the upper end of changes projected to occur by 2100. We examined whether the ability to maintain calcification rates in the face of rising pCO2 affected the energetic requirements of these corals. Over the course of three months, rates of respiration were measured at a pCO2 ranging between 350 and 1100 μatm to distinguish between short-term response and longer-term acclimation. Respiration rates ranged from 0.074 to 0.266 μmol O2 (g skeletal dry weight)-1 h-1 and 0.095 to 0.725 μmol O2 (g skeletal dry weight)-1 h-1 for L. pertusa and M. oculata, respectively, and were independent of p CO2. Respiration increased with time likely due to regular feeding, which may have provided an increased energy supply to sustain coral metabolism. Future studies are needed to confirm whether the insensitivity of respiration to increasing pCO2 is a general feature of deep-sea corals in other regions. © Author(s) 2013.


Lescuyer G.,CIRAD | Mvondo S.A.,CIFOR | Essoungou J.N.,CIFOR | Toison V.,Agence des Aires Marines Protegees | And 2 more authors.
Ecology and Society | Year: 2012

Sustainable forest management gives the opportunity to better integrate the way local populations use their customary "village terroirs" in the logging activities. This requirement is explicitly stated in all forest laws of the Congo Basin countries but its implementation on the field remains under documented. In Cameroon, 30 forest management plans (FMP) for logging concessions have been reviewed to assess how they effectively include customary use rights. The integration of use rights into the FMPs is heterogeneous but always with very low enforcement. The weak influence of the FMP application on local practices is confirmed with an empirical survey that shows that natural, financial, and physical capitals in two villages of the eastern region of Cameroon have been little affected by the adjoining logging concession over the latest 13 years. Extrasector policies such as agriculture, road infrastructure, techniques, and land tenure are the real drivers of socioeconomic change at the local scale. Their impacts are facilitated by the presence of the logging concessions, which can contribute indirectly to improve local livelihoods. © 2012 by the author(s). Published here under license by the Resilience Alliance.


PubMed | French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea, University of Perpignan, BP 16856, Agence des Aires Marines Protegees and Squale
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Marine pollution bulletin | Year: 2016

In coastal areas, demographic increase is likely to result in greater numbers of recreational users, with potential consequences on marine biodiversity. These effects may also occur within Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), which are popular with recreational users. Our analysis builds on data collected over a ten-year period during three year-round surveys to appraise changes in recreational boating activities in coral ecosystems. Results show that the number of boaters has greatly increased, particularly so within MPAs during weekends and the warm season, when peaks in boat numbers have become more frequent. We also observed that the number of anchored boats has increased over the period. These changes may be resulting in biophysical impacts that could be detrimental to conservation objectives in MPAs. This steady increase over time may cause changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of users and in their practices, thus highlighting the importance of monitoring recreational activities.

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