Time filter

Source Type

Lescuyer G.,CIRAD | Mvondo S.A.,CIFOR | Essoungou J.N.,CIFOR | Toison V.,Agence des aires marines protegees | And 2 more authors.
Ecology and Society

Sustainable forest management gives the opportunity to better integrate the way local populations use their customary "village terroirs" in the logging activities. This requirement is explicitly stated in all forest laws of the Congo Basin countries but its implementation on the field remains under documented. In Cameroon, 30 forest management plans (FMP) for logging concessions have been reviewed to assess how they effectively include customary use rights. The integration of use rights into the FMPs is heterogeneous but always with very low enforcement. The weak influence of the FMP application on local practices is confirmed with an empirical survey that shows that natural, financial, and physical capitals in two villages of the eastern region of Cameroon have been little affected by the adjoining logging concession over the latest 13 years. Extrasector policies such as agriculture, road infrastructure, techniques, and land tenure are the real drivers of socioeconomic change at the local scale. Their impacts are facilitated by the presence of the logging concessions, which can contribute indirectly to improve local livelihoods. © 2012 by the author(s). Published here under license by the Resilience Alliance. Source

Maier C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Maier C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Bils F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Bils F.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 7 more authors.

The rise of CO2 has been identified as a major threat to life in the ocean. About one-third of the anthropogenic CO2 produced in the last 200 yr has been taken up by the ocean, leading to ocean acidification. Surface seawater pH is projected to decrease by about 0.4 units between the pre-industrial revolution and 2100. The branching cold-water corals Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa are important, habitat-forming species in the deep Mediterranean Sea. Although previous research has investigated the abundance and distribution of these species, little is known regarding their ecophysiology and potential responses to global environmental change. A previous study indicated that the rate of calcification of these two species remained constant up to 1000 μatm CO2, a value that is at the upper end of changes projected to occur by 2100. We examined whether the ability to maintain calcification rates in the face of rising pCO2 affected the energetic requirements of these corals. Over the course of three months, rates of respiration were measured at a pCO2 ranging between 350 and 1100 μatm to distinguish between short-term response and longer-term acclimation. Respiration rates ranged from 0.074 to 0.266 μmol O2 (g skeletal dry weight)-1 h-1 and 0.095 to 0.725 μmol O2 (g skeletal dry weight)-1 h-1 for L. pertusa and M. oculata, respectively, and were independent of p CO2. Respiration increased with time likely due to regular feeding, which may have provided an increased energy supply to sustain coral metabolism. Future studies are needed to confirm whether the insensitivity of respiration to increasing pCO2 is a general feature of deep-sea corals in other regions. © Author(s) 2013. Source

Maier C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Maier C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Watremez P.,Agence des aires marines protegees | Taviani M.,CNR Marine Science Institute | And 5 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

Global environmental changes, including ocean acidification, have been identified as a major threat to scleractinian corals. General predictions are that ocean acidification will be detrimental to reef growth and that 40 to more than 80 per cent of present-day reefs will decline during the next 50 years. Coldwater corals (CWCs) are thought to be strongly affected by changes in ocean acidification owing to their distribution in deep and/or cold waters, which naturally exhibit a CaCO 3 saturation state lower than in shallow/warm waters. Calcification was measured in three species of Mediterranean cold-water scleractinian corals (Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata and Desmophyllum dianthus) on-board research vessels and soon after collection. Incubations were performed in ambient sea water. The species M. oculata was additionally incubated in sea water reduced or enriched in CO 2. At ambient conditions, calcification rates ranged between -0.01 and 0.23% d -1. Calcification rates of M. oculata under variable partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2) were the same for ambient and elevated pCO 2 (404 and 867 μatm) with 0.06±0.06% d -1, while calcification was 0.12±0.06% d -1 when pCO 2 was reduced to its pre-industrial level (285 μatm). This suggests that present-day CWC calcification in the Mediterranean Sea has already drastically declined (by 50%) as a consequence of anthropogenic-induced ocean acidification. © 2012 The Royal Society. Source

Maier C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Maier C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Schubert A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Schubert A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 7 more authors.

Ocean acidification caused by anthropogenic uptake of CO2 is perceived to be a major threat to calcifying organisms. Cold-water corals were thought to be strongly affected by a decrease in ocean pH due to their abundance in deep and cold waters which, in contrast to tropical coral reef waters, will soon become corrosive to calcium carbonate. Calcification rates of two Mediterranean cold-water coral species, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, were measured under variable partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) that ranged between 380 μatm for present-day conditions and 930 μatm for the end of the century. The present study addressed both short- and long-term responses by repeatedly determining calcification rates on the same specimens over a period of 9 months. Besides studying the direct, short-term response to elevated pCO2 levels, the study aimed to elucidate the potential for acclimation of calcification of cold-water corals to ocean acidification. Net calcification of both species was unaffected by the levels of pCO2 investigated and revealed no short-term shock and, therefore, no long-term acclimation in calcification to changes in the carbonate chemistry. There was an effect of time during repeated experiments with increasing net calcification rates for both species, however, as this pattern was found in all treatments, there is no indication that acclimation of calcification to ocean acidification occurred. The use of controls (initial and ambient net calcification rates) indicated that this increase was not caused by acclimation in calcification response to higher pCO2. An extrapolation of these data suggests that calcification of these two cold-water corals will not be affected by the pCO2 level projected at the end of the century. © 2013 Maier et al. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EO-2-2015 | Award Amount: 2.67M | Year: 2016

EO4wildlife main objective is to bring large number of multidisciplinary scientists such as biologists, ecologists and ornithologists around the world to collaborate closely together while using European Sentinel Copernicus Earth Observation more heavily and efficiently. In order to reach such important objective, an open service platform and interoperable toolbox will be designed and developed. It will offer high level services that can be accessed by scientists to perform their respective research. The platform front end will be easy-to-use, access and offer dedicated services that will enable them process their geospatial environmental stimulations using Sentinel Earth Observation data that are intelligently combined with other observation sources. Specifically, the EO4wildlife platform will enable the integration of Sentinel data, ARGOS archive databases and real time thematic databank portals, including Wildlifetracking.org, Seabirdtracking.org, and other Earth Observation and MetOcean databases; locally or remotely, and simultaneously. EO4wildlife research specialises in the intelligent management big data, processing, advanced analytics and a Knowledge Base for wildlife migratory behaviour and trends forecast. The research will lead to the development of web-enabled open services using OGC standards for sensor observation and measurements and data processing of heterogeneous geospatial observation data and uncertainties. EO4wildlife will design, implement and validate various scenarios based on real operational use case requirements in the field of wildlife migrations, habitats and behaviour. These include: (1) Management tools for regulatory authorities to achieve real-time advanced decision-making on the protection of protect seabird species; (2) Enhancing scientific knowledge of pelagic fish migrations routes, reproduction and feeding behaviours for better species management; and (3) Setting up tools to assist marine protected areas and management.

Discover hidden collaborations