Brown S.T.,Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center |
Schreiber B.,UNICEF |
Cakouros B.E.,Public Health Computational and Operations Research PHICOR |
Wateska A.R.,Public Health Computational and Operations Research PHICOR |
And 12 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2014
Introduction: New vaccine introductions have put strains on vaccine supply chains around the world. While increasing storage and transportation may be the most straightforward options, it is also important to consider what financial and operational benefits can be incurred. In 2012, suboptimal vaccine coverage and impending vaccine introductions prompted the Republic of Benin's Ministry of Health (MOH) to explore ways to improve their vaccine supply chain. Methods: Working alongside the Beninese MOH, we utilized our computational model, HERMES, to explore the impact on cost and vaccine availability of three possible options: (1) consolidating the Commune level to a Health Zone level, (2) removing the Commune level completely, and (3) removing the Commune level and expanding to 12 Department Stores. We also analyzed the impact of adding shipping loops during delivery. Results: At baseline, new vaccine introductions without any changes to the current system increased the logistics cost per dose ($0.23 to $0.26) and dropped the vaccine availability to 71%. While implementing the Commune level removal scenario had the same capital costs as implementing the Health Zone scenario, the Health Zone scenario had lower operating costs. This increased to an overall cost savings of $504,255 when implementing shipping loops. Discussion: The best redesign option proved to be the synergistic approach of converting to the Health Zone design and using shipping loops (serving ten Health Posts/loop). While a transition to either redesign or only adding shipping loops was beneficial, implementing a redesign option and shipping loops can yield both lower capital expenditures and operating costs. © 2014 The Authors.
Haidari L.A.,Public Health Computational and Operations Research PHICOR |
Haidari L.A.,Carnegie Mellon University |
Wahl B.,International Vaccine Access Center |
Brown S.T.,Carnegie Mellon University |
And 12 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2015
Background: While the size and type of a vaccine container (i.e., primary container) can have many implications on the safety and convenience of a vaccination session, another important but potentially overlooked consideration is how the design of the primary container may affect the distribution of the vaccine, its resulting cost, and whether the vial is ultimately opened. Methods: Using our HERMES software platform, we developed a simulation model of the World Health Organization Expanded Program on Immunization supply chain for the Republic of Benin and used the model to explore the effects of different primary containers for various vaccine antigens. Results: Replacing vaccines with presentations containing fewer doses per vial reduced vaccine availability (proportion of people arriving for vaccines who are successfully immunized) by as much as 13% (from 73% at baseline) and raised logistics costs by up to $0.06 per dose administered (from $0.25 at baseline) due to increased bottlenecks, while reducing total costs by as much as $0.15 per dose administered (from $2.52 at baseline) due to lower open vial wastage. Primary containers with a greater number of doses per vial each improved vaccine availability by 19% and reduced logistics costs by $0.05 per dose administered, while reducing the total costs by up to $0.25 per dose administered. Changes in supply chain performance were more extreme in departments with greater constraints. Implementing a vial opening threshold reversed the direction of many of these effects. Conclusions: Our results show that one size may not fit all when choosing a primary vaccine container. Rather, the choice depends on characteristics of the vaccine, the vaccine supply chain, immunization session size, and goals of decision makers. In fact, the optimal vial size may vary among locations within a country. Simulation modeling can help identify tailored approaches to improve availability and efficiency. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Schreiber B.,Agence de Medicine Preventive AMP |
Wateska A.R.,HERMES Logistics Modeling Team |
Connor D.L.,HERMES Logistics Modeling Team |
Dicko H.M.,Agence de Medicine Preventive AMP |
And 8 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2015
While scientific studies can show the need for vaccine policy or operations changes, translating scientific findings to action is a complex process that needs to be executed appropriately for change to occur. Our Benin experience provided key steps and lessons learned to help computational modeling inform and lead to major policy change. The key steps are: engagement of Ministry of Health, identifying in-country "champions," directed and efficient data collection, defining a finite set of realistic scenarios, making the study methodology transparent, presenting the results in a clear manner, and facilitating decision-making and advocacy. Generating scientific evidence is one component of policy change. Enabling change requires orchestration of a coordinated set of steps that heavily involve key stakeholders, earn their confidence, and provide them with relevant information. Our Benin EVM + CCEM + HERMES Process led to a decision to enact major changes and could serve as a template for similar approaches in other countries. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.