Teniere-Buchot P.-F.,Agence de lEau Seine Normandie
Water Alternatives | Year: 2013
After a few lines about his personal history, the author presents the legal context for water in France in the last century, and describes the hesitant first steps of the French Agences de l'Eau during the 1970s. While the financial system of French water policy is presented in detail, the role of economic transfers between various categories of water users is underlined. Then, the general socio-political aspects of French water governance are explained. A diagram illustrating the financial decision-making procedure for water (the 'water wheel') is given. Simple advice is drawn from the experience of a CEO of a water agency: the most useful skill for a water professional is to know how to swim.
Connan O.,Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety |
Maro D.,Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety |
Hebert D.,Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety |
Roupsard P.,Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety |
And 3 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2013
Atmospheric transport plays an important role in the transfer of pollutants to ecosystems. During such transport, the atmospheric aerosol is one of the key factors in terms of deposition. Over 18 months, we studied the concentrations of Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, Hg in air and precipitations in a wetland site in the north west of France. The objective of this study was to characterise the quantities transferred by dry and wet deposition. An eddy correlation technique was used to measure dry deposition velocities and determine the dry deposition fluxes from atmospheric concentration. In this site, wet deposition is almost always preponderant, except for Pb and Cd over several months. Measurements in the air and in rainwater are low and show that the site is protected from important anthropogenic influences, with levels that can be considered as background levels. In terms of deposition fluxes, the configuration of the site and the meteorological conditions (low wind speeds, low thermal fluxes) lead to low dry depositions. Wet depositions, although more important are also relatively low compared to the literature, directly linked to the pluviometry during the study period. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Mahler B.J.,U.S. Geological Survey |
Bourgeais R.,Agence de lEau Seine Normandie
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2013
Karst aquifers and springs provide the dissolved oxygen critical for survival of endemic stygophiles worldwide, but little is known about fluctuations of dissolved oxygen concentrations (DO) and factors that control those concentrations. We investigated temporal variation in DO at Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, USA. During 2006-2012, DO fluctuated by as much as a factor of 2, and at some periods decreased to concentrations that adversely affect the Barton Springs salamander (Eurycea sorosum) (≤4.4mg/L), a federally listed endangered species endemic to Barton Springs. DO was lowest (≤4.4mg/L) when discharge was low (≤1m3/s) and spring water temperature was >21°C, although not at a maximum; the minimum DO recorded was 4.0mg/L. Relatively low DO (<6mg/L) also was measured at relatively high discharge (3.2m3/s) and maximum T (22.2°C). A four-segment linear regression model with daily data for discharge and spring water temperature as explanatory variables provided an excellent fit for mean daily DO (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient for the validation period of 0.90). DO also fluctuated at short-term timescales in response to storms, and DO measured at 15-min intervals could be simulated with a combination of discharge, spring temperature, and specific conductance as explanatory variables. On the basis of the daily-data regression model, we hypothesize that more frequent low DO corresponding to salamander mortality could result from (i) lower discharge from Barton Springs resulting from increased groundwater withdrawals or decreased recharge as a result of climate change, and (or) (ii) higher groundwater temperature as a result of climate change. © 2013 .
Characterisation of rural and urban pollution sources to establish the vulnerability profiles of bathing water [Caractérisation des sources de pollution rurales et urbaines en vue de l'élaboration des profils de vulnérabilité des eaux de baignade]
Duchemin J.,Agence de lEau Seine Normandie |
Heath P.,Royaume University
Techniques - Sciences - Methodes | Year: 2010
For the development of vulnerability profiles of bathing water (under directive 2006/7/EC), the use of "characteristic values" and simple models is an essential first approach to estimate roughly and prioritize the microbiological fluxes and their mitigation during the transfer from the source to the bathing water. Several types of "characteristic values" derived from experiments and extensive literature review are pre-sented in this article, namely: the concentration of germs of human and animal manure, the microbiological concentrations of agricultural effluents and various types of water (wastewater, storm water and natural waters, depending on activities in watersheds upstream) and finally, the rate of natural microbiological removal during transfers in fresh and marine waters to the vulnerable site.
Duchemin I.J.,Agence de lEau Seine Normandie |
Leroy R.,Agence de lEau Loire Bretagne |
Dufils J.,DDASS de la Manche
Techniques - Sciences - Methodes | Year: 2010
The publication of the first E.U. Directive dealing with bathing waters, in 1976, have urged French authorities to promote ambitious sanitation programmes for coastal areas, so that a majority of our beaches comply today with bathing water standards. The new 2006 BW Directive reinforces quality standards and requires elaboration of "bathing water profiles". A profile includes a description of the bathing water, a diagnosis of pollution risks and sources, a plan for prevention and management of these risks, and a programme for public information and participation. Methodological approaches and concrete applications set up in Normandy, Brittany and Pays de la Loire regions, with the support of water agencies, are presented here. In the Loire-Bretagne area, terms of reference for profile studies have been elaborated, so that coastal municipalities can adapt it to their specifici-ties, and the water agency will provide grants for beaches needing water quality improvements. In Normandy, which is facing multiple contiguous water uses and discharges along the seaside, the district authorities and water agency have developed modelling tools, for simulation of microbiologic fluxes transfer along the coasts. This allows launching integrated "profile" studies both for bathing waters and filtering shellfish areas protection. In the "Manche" district, a strong support is brought to municipalities both by the District Council and by the Health and Welfare Public Services (DDASS), for the elaboration of profiles. In conclusion, authors point out the high interest of good quality and complete initial profile studies, as the acquired knowledge about the bathing area and surroundings allows targeting preventive actions, and profile revision will be a tool for monitoring and assessing further improvements.