Agence de lEau Seine Normandie

Paris, France

Agence de lEau Seine Normandie

Paris, France
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Feuillette S.,Agence de leau Seine Normandie | Levrel H.,Agro ParisTech | Boeuf B.,University of Leeds | Blanquart S.,Agence de leau Loire Bretagne | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2016

This paper aims to practically contribute to the literature on the use of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and economic evaluation in environmental decision-making through a practical case study: the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in France, for the first cycle (2010-2015). The WFD requires that Member States achieve "good status" for all water bodies in 2015. However, exemptions can apply, if justified, on natural, technical or economic reasons. For the latter, EU guidance documents recommend to use CBA. In France, the water agencies carried out 710 CBAs on proposed restoration projects for water bodies. This article reports on this experience. Issues concerning these analyses are discussed, especially the assessment of non-market benefits. Finally, this article questions the use of economic analysis in the implementation of environmental policy. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Connan O.,Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety | Maro D.,Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety | Hebert D.,Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety | Roupsard P.,Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety | And 3 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2013

Atmospheric transport plays an important role in the transfer of pollutants to ecosystems. During such transport, the atmospheric aerosol is one of the key factors in terms of deposition. Over 18 months, we studied the concentrations of Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, Hg in air and precipitations in a wetland site in the north west of France. The objective of this study was to characterise the quantities transferred by dry and wet deposition. An eddy correlation technique was used to measure dry deposition velocities and determine the dry deposition fluxes from atmospheric concentration. In this site, wet deposition is almost always preponderant, except for Pb and Cd over several months. Measurements in the air and in rainwater are low and show that the site is protected from important anthropogenic influences, with levels that can be considered as background levels. In terms of deposition fluxes, the configuration of the site and the meteorological conditions (low wind speeds, low thermal fluxes) lead to low dry depositions. Wet depositions, although more important are also relatively low compared to the literature, directly linked to the pluviometry during the study period. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Fouilloux R.-C.,Agence de lEau Seine Normandie | Guillossou A.,SCE Nantes
Techniques - Sciences - Methodes | Year: 2011

Between 2006 and 2008, the Seine Normandy Water Agency commissioned a study on ageing sewerage networks on its territory, assignment given to the consortium comprising SCE (a consulting and engineering firm based in Nantes) and A3SN (quality control body based in Saint-Marc-le-Blanc, 35) The inspection conducted on nearly 13 km of networks laid between 1996 and 2003, highlighted several issues: - issues related to network management (breakages due to improper cleaning operations and implementation of new connections); - deterioration of existing small defects (cracks, chips... and insufficient fittings which are now unsealed). The main unexpected result stresses that 80 % of the controlled operations showed a significant change in the hydraulic profile. This last point should be further studied through additional research.


Duchemin I.J.,Agence de lEau Seine Normandie | Leroy R.,Agence de lEau Loire Bretagne | Dufils J.,DDASS de la Manche
Techniques - Sciences - Methodes | Year: 2010

The publication of the first E.U. Directive dealing with bathing waters, in 1976, have urged French authorities to promote ambitious sanitation programmes for coastal areas, so that a majority of our beaches comply today with bathing water standards. The new 2006 BW Directive reinforces quality standards and requires elaboration of "bathing water profiles". A profile includes a description of the bathing water, a diagnosis of pollution risks and sources, a plan for prevention and management of these risks, and a programme for public information and participation. Methodological approaches and concrete applications set up in Normandy, Brittany and Pays de la Loire regions, with the support of water agencies, are presented here. In the Loire-Bretagne area, terms of reference for profile studies have been elaborated, so that coastal municipalities can adapt it to their specifici-ties, and the water agency will provide grants for beaches needing water quality improvements. In Normandy, which is facing multiple contiguous water uses and discharges along the seaside, the district authorities and water agency have developed modelling tools, for simulation of microbiologic fluxes transfer along the coasts. This allows launching integrated "profile" studies both for bathing waters and filtering shellfish areas protection. In the "Manche" district, a strong support is brought to municipalities both by the District Council and by the Health and Welfare Public Services (DDASS), for the elaboration of profiles. In conclusion, authors point out the high interest of good quality and complete initial profile studies, as the acquired knowledge about the bathing area and surroundings allows targeting preventive actions, and profile revision will be a tool for monitoring and assessing further improvements.


Rocher B.V.,Siaap | Aires N.,Agence de leau Seine Normandie | Rabier A.,Conseil general du Val de Marne | Vandelannoote F.,Conseil General de Seine Saint Denis | Charvet R.,Mairie de Paris
Techniques - Sciences - Methodes | Year: 2011

The Water, Environment and Urban Systems Lab (Leesu) has set up an observatory of urban pollutants-OPUR-for the île-de-France region (France) in 1994 This observatory was created in order to improve the knowledge of the sources, characteristics and processes governing the generation and transport of both pollutants and micropollutants in our sewer networks. Since its creation, it has been sponsored by the water sector key actors of the Greater Paris: the Seine-Normandie Water Board, the association for sewage disposal in the Paris conurbation (Siaap), the Hauts-de-Seine and Valde-Marne departments* and the City of Paris. This programme comprises four-year phases. The third phase of the OPUR research programme was launched in 2007 and will be completed within few months. The year 2011 will then be a pivotal year for finalizing the ultimate research efforts under way and reflecting together on the future trends for the OPUR research programme. This paper, which was drafted jointly by the programme partners, is fully in line with these objectives. On the one hand, it aims at taking stock of the functioning of this observatory and drawing lessons from the research efforts deployed within the scope of this scientific programme. On the other hand, it reviews the guidelines as contemplated by the partners for the next four-year phase of this programme.


Mahler B.J.,U.S. Geological Survey | Bourgeais R.,Agence de leau Seine Normandie
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2013

Karst aquifers and springs provide the dissolved oxygen critical for survival of endemic stygophiles worldwide, but little is known about fluctuations of dissolved oxygen concentrations (DO) and factors that control those concentrations. We investigated temporal variation in DO at Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, USA. During 2006-2012, DO fluctuated by as much as a factor of 2, and at some periods decreased to concentrations that adversely affect the Barton Springs salamander (Eurycea sorosum) (≤4.4mg/L), a federally listed endangered species endemic to Barton Springs. DO was lowest (≤4.4mg/L) when discharge was low (≤1m3/s) and spring water temperature was >21°C, although not at a maximum; the minimum DO recorded was 4.0mg/L. Relatively low DO (<6mg/L) also was measured at relatively high discharge (3.2m3/s) and maximum T (22.2°C). A four-segment linear regression model with daily data for discharge and spring water temperature as explanatory variables provided an excellent fit for mean daily DO (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient for the validation period of 0.90). DO also fluctuated at short-term timescales in response to storms, and DO measured at 15-min intervals could be simulated with a combination of discharge, spring temperature, and specific conductance as explanatory variables. On the basis of the daily-data regression model, we hypothesize that more frequent low DO corresponding to salamander mortality could result from (i) lower discharge from Barton Springs resulting from increased groundwater withdrawals or decreased recharge as a result of climate change, and (or) (ii) higher groundwater temperature as a result of climate change. © 2013 .


Teniere-Buchot P.-F.,Agence de lEau Seine Normandie
Water Alternatives | Year: 2013

After a few lines about his personal history, the author presents the legal context for water in France in the last century, and describes the hesitant first steps of the French Agences de l'Eau during the 1970s. While the financial system of French water policy is presented in detail, the role of economic transfers between various categories of water users is underlined. Then, the general socio-political aspects of French water governance are explained. A diagram illustrating the financial decision-making procedure for water (the 'water wheel') is given. Simple advice is drawn from the experience of a CEO of a water agency: the most useful skill for a water professional is to know how to swim.


For the development of vulnerability profiles of bathing water (under directive 2006/7/EC), the use of "characteristic values" and simple models is an essential first approach to estimate roughly and prioritize the microbiological fluxes and their mitigation during the transfer from the source to the bathing water. Several types of "characteristic values" derived from experiments and extensive literature review are pre-sented in this article, namely: the concentration of germs of human and animal manure, the microbiological concentrations of agricultural effluents and various types of water (wastewater, storm water and natural waters, depending on activities in watersheds upstream) and finally, the rate of natural microbiological removal during transfers in fresh and marine waters to the vulnerable site.


Among available tools for estimating the ecological impacts of discharge alteration, hydraulic habitat models link hydraulic models of streams with biological models that reflect the preferences of organisms for hydraulics. The simplification of habitat models now enables their application at the catchment scale for estimating the impacts on habitats of discharge and abstraction management. In the Seine-Normandie catchment in France, we propose an original linkage of a distributed hydrological model, a fish species distribution model and hydraulic habitat models. We show that groundwater abstraction in the catchment cause a moderate alteration of low flows (median: 4.1%) and a weak alteration of usable habitats for fish (median: 1.6%). However, the spatial distribution of alterations helps to identify regions where impacts are stronger (habitat alteration around 15%), due to strong abstraction and/or the presence of demanding fish species. An uncertainty analysis indicates that our results should be interpreted at the regional scale only; they allow identifying regions that would deserve more detailed analyses. Our results open many perspectives for taking into account habitat issues in quantitative water management at the catchment scale. © Société Hydrotechnique de France, 2016.


Caulliez Q.D.,Agence de leau Seine Normandie
Techniques - Sciences - Methodes | Year: 2011

Hazardous substances regulation has quite evolved over the last 50 years. In 2000, the European Water Framework Directive defined three major goals that were to be reached within very short time-limits. Storm waters are concerned by these goals as they can be one way for pollutants to transfer into the receiving waters. Measures to be carried out are diverse. They have to be taken quickly even if the matter is complex and requires further investigations. The Observatory of Urban Pollutants (OPUR) is a way to improve our knowledge on this topic.

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