Feuillette S.,Agence de leau Seine Normandie |
Levrel H.,Agro ParisTech |
Boeuf B.,University of Leeds |
Blanquart S.,Agence de leau Loire Bretagne |
And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2016
This paper aims to practically contribute to the literature on the use of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and economic evaluation in environmental decision-making through a practical case study: the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in France, for the first cycle (2010-2015). The WFD requires that Member States achieve "good status" for all water bodies in 2015. However, exemptions can apply, if justified, on natural, technical or economic reasons. For the latter, EU guidance documents recommend to use CBA. In France, the water agencies carried out 710 CBAs on proposed restoration projects for water bodies. This article reports on this experience. Issues concerning these analyses are discussed, especially the assessment of non-market benefits. Finally, this article questions the use of economic analysis in the implementation of environmental policy. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Dezileau L.,Montpellier University |
Terrier B.,Agence de leau RhOne Mediterranee et Corse |
Berger J.F.,University Lumiere Lyon 2 |
Blanchemanche P.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
And 6 more authors.
Geomorphology | Year: 2014
A multidating approach was carried out on slackwater flood deposits, preserved in valley side rock cave and terrace, of the Gardon River in Languedoc, southeast France. Lead-210, caesium-137, and geochemical analysis of mining-contaminated slackwater flood sediments have been used to reconstruct the history of these flood deposits. These age controls were combined with the continuous record of Gardon flow since 1890, and the combined records were then used to assign ages to slackwater deposits. The stratigraphic records of terrace GE and cave GG were excellent examples to illustrate the effects of erosion/preservation in a context of a progressively self-censoring, vertically accreting sequence. The sedimentary flood record of the terrace GE located at 10m above the channel bed is complete for years post-1958 but incomplete before. During the 78-year period 1880-1958, 25 floods of a sufficient magnitude (>1450m3/s) have covered the terrace. Since 1958, however, the frequency of inundation of the deposits has been lower: only 5 or 6 floods in 52years have been large enough to exceed the necessary threshold discharge (>1700m3/s). The progressive increase of the threshold discharge and the reduced frequency of inundation at the terrace could allow stabilization of the vegetation cover and improve protection against erosion from subsequent large magnitude flood events. The sedimentary flood record seems complete for cave GG located at 15m above the channel bed. Here, the low frequency of events would have enabled a high degree of stabilization of the sedimentary flood record, rendering the deposits less susceptible to erosion.Radiocarbon dating is used in this study and compared to the other dating techniques. Eighty percent of radiocarbon dates on charcoals were considerably older than those obtained by the other techniques in the terrace. On the other hand, radiocarbon dating on seeds provided better results. This discrepancy between radiocarbon dates on charcoal and seeds is explained by the nature of the dated material (permanent wood vs. annual production and resistance to degradation process). Finally, we showed in this study that although the most common dating technique used in paleoflood hydrology is radiocarbon dating, usually on charcoal preserved within slackwater flood sediments, this method did not permit us to define a coherent age model. Only the combined use of lead-210, caesium-137, and geochemical analysis of mining-contaminated sediments with the instrumental flood record can be applied to discriminate and date the recent slackwater deposits of the terrace GE and cave GG. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Urban sewage treatment plant sludge: Results of a survey in 2010 by l'Agence de l'eau into the rhône-Méditerranée and corsica basins [Améliorer la qualité des boues urbaines : Les préconisations de l'Agence de l'eau Rhône- Mé diterranée et Corse]
Bour L.,Agence de leau rhone mediterranee et corse
Eau, l'INDUSTRIE, les Nuisances | Year: 2011
The quality of the sludge produced in the Rhône- Mé diterranée and Corsica basins has improved over the last 10 years. However, efforts still need to be made by the 10% most fragile communities to control dumping of sewage water into the public networks.