Ahmed K.,Karakoram International University |
Ahmed M.,Aga Khan Planning and Building Service |
Ahmed J.,Aga Khan Planning and Building Service |
Khan A.,Karakoram International University
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2012
In Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan glaciers are the main source of water and people use surface water from nallahs (big streams) and springs for both drinking and irrigation purposes. The surface water has many chances of water borne diseases. From out of seven districts the drinking water samples of four districts were bacteriolocically analyzed for fecal coliform contamination. Randomly selected 46 villages and their water samples were analyzed at different points by using membrane filtration technique and specific medium (lauryl sulphate broth). It was found that 25 villages use water from the springs and fecal coliform contamination was from 0-500 cfu in 100 ml water at source, from 0 - TNTC in the beginning, mid and at the end of the distribution system. Twenty one villages use water from the nallahs and fecal coliform contamination was from 4-500 cfu at the source, 1-1350 cfu in the beginning of the distribution system, 44 - TNTC in the middle and 110 - TNTC in the end of the distribution system. In most of the springs the bacteriological quality of drinking water was good at source and it becomes contaminated as it becomes in contact with animals. Most of the nallahs water was contaminated at their source. Copyright 2012 Zoological Society of Pakistan.
Khudadad N.,Aga Khan Planning and Building Service |
Ali B.,Aga Khan Planning and Building Service |
Jan K.,Aga Khan Planning and Building Service
Renewable Energy | Year: 2013
With financial assistance from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), BACIP implemented a project on the "Promotion of Market-Based Mechanism for Adoption and Replication of Energy Efficient and Home Improvement Products and Technologies in Northern Pakistan". This project was aimed at improving the socio-economic and environmental well-being of poor communities inhabited in Gilgit Baltistan and Chitral, Pakistan. These products mainly include including Energy Efficient Stoves (EES), Water Warming Facilities (WWF), Roof Hatch Windows (RHW), Floor Insulation (PE Foam), Double Glazed Windows (DGW) and Wall Insulation Techniques (WIT). Kitchen Performance Test (KPT) [1-3] was carried out in 40 households of 18 villages at altitudes ranging from 6000 ft to 13,000 ft. using paired sample method. KPT was consist of the collection of baseline data, firewood monitoring through developing inventories and recording the daily wood consumption and consumer satisfaction survey to collect the feedback on the efficiency of the installed products from the households. The Kitchen Performance Test results show plausible reduction in the consumption of fuel wood that varies due to product type and altitude of the village. Floor Insulation, installed in 15 houses show 29% reduction in fuel wood consumption. Similarly with the help of RHW and WWF, firewood acna be saved 32% and 28% respectively. Altitude wise the daily wood savings are 31% at 6000 ft. and 29% at 8000 and 9000 ft. To meet the Firewood requirement, the main fuel of all households, 50% households chopped down yearly 1-2 trees, 19% 3-4 and remaining 50% chopped down 5+ trees yearly. The wall in 50% households is built with cement, which has a high coefficient of heat loss and cold transmission resulting in high amount of firewood to be used for heating the house. Indoor smoke and air pollution is another issues identified during the test, which shows that 95% households get smoke while cooking in winters. This contributes to heat loss since doors are kept open during cooking. This study concludes that there is substantial reduction in Firewood consumption due to BACIP EE & HI products. Firewood is the second highest expenditure followed by food in the region. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.