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Sophia, France
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Cadot C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Tran S.-L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Vignaud M.-L.,AFSSA | De Buyser M.-L.,AFSSA | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2010

Bacillus cereus is found in food, soil, and plants, and the ability to cause food-borne diseases and opportunistic infection presumably varies among strains. Therefore, measuring harmful toxin production, in addition to the detection of the bacterium itself, may be key for food and hospital safety purposes. All previous studies have focused on the main known virulence factors, cereulide, Hbl, Nhe, and CytK. We examined whether other virulence factors may be specific to pathogenic strains. InhA1, NprA, and HiyII have been described as possibly contributing to B. cereus pathogenicity. We report the prevalence and expression profiles of these three new virulence factor genes among 57 B. cereus strains isolated from various sources, including isolates associated with gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal diseases. Using PCR, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, and virulence in vivo assays, we unraveled these factors as potential markers to differentiate pathogenic from nonpathogenic strains. We show that the hlyII gene is carried only by strains with a pathogenic potential and that the expression levels of inhA1 and nprA are higher in the pathogenic than in the nonpathogenic group of strains studied. These data deliver useful information about the pathogenicity of various B. cereus strains. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Dufour M.-C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Fontaine S.,AFSSA | Montarry J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Corio-Costet M.-F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Pest Management Science | Year: 2011

Background: Management of grapevine powdery mildew Erysiphe necator Schw. requires fungicide treatments such as sterol demethylation inhibitors (DMIs) or mitochondrial inhibitors (QoIs). Recently, reduction in the efficacy of DMIs or QoIs was reported in Europe and the United States. The aim of the present study was to develop real-time qPCR tools to detect and quantify several CYP51 gene variants of E. necator: (i) A versus B groups (G37A) and (ii) sensitive versus resistant to sterol demethylase inhibitor fungicides (Y136F).Results: The efficacy of the qPCR tools developed was better than the CAPS method, with a limit of 2 pg for E necator DNA, 0.06 ng for genetic group A and 1.4 ng for the DMI-resistant allele. The detection limits of qPCR protocols (LOD) ranged from 0.72 to 0.85%, and the quantification limits (LOQ) ranged from 2.4 to 2.85% for the two alleles G47A and Y136F respectively. The application of qPCR to field isolates from French vineyards showed the presence of DMI-resistant and/or QoI-resistant alleles in French pathogen populations, linked to genetic group B.Conclusion: The real-time PCR assay developed in this study provides a potentially useful tool for efficient quantification of different alleles of interest for fungicide monitoring and for population structure of E. necator. © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.


Lange M.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Van der Stede Y.,CODA | Meroc E.,CODA | Durand B.,AFSSA
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2011

In recent years the vector-borne diseases (VBD) are (re)-emerging and spreading across the world having a profound impact on human and veterinary health, ecology, socio-economics and disease management. Arguably the best-documented example of veterinary importance is the recent twofold invasion of bluetongue (BT) in Europe. Much attention has been devoted to derive presence-absence habitat distribution models and to model transmission through direct contact. Limited research has focused on the dynamic modelling of wind mediated BT spread. This paper shows the results of a stochastic predictive model used to assess the spread of bluetongue by vectors considering both wind-independent and wind-mediated movement of the vectors. The model was parameterised using epidemiological knowledge from the BTV8 epidemic in 2006/2007 and the BTV1 epidemic in 2008 in South-France. The model correctly reflects the total surface of the infected zone (overall accuracy = 0.77; sensitivity = 0.94; specificity = 0.65) whilst slightly overestimating spatial case density. The model was used operationally in spring 2009 to predict further spread of BTV1. This allowed veterinary officers in Belgium to decide whether there was a risk of introduction of BTV1 from France into Belgium and thus, whether there was a need for vaccination. Given the far distance from the predicted infected zone to the Belgian border, it was decided not to vaccinate against BTV1 in 2009 in Belgium. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Arnich N.,AFSSA | Canivenc-Lavier M.-C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Kolf-Clauw M.,National Veterinary School of Toulouse | Coffigny H.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health | Year: 2011

Since more than 10 years, risk assessment of bisphenol A (BPA) is debated at the international level. In 2008, the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) expressed some concern for adverse effects, at current level of exposure to BPA, on developmental toxicity. In this context, the French Food Safety Agency (AFSSA) decided to review the toxicity data on BPA with a special focus on this endpoint at doses below 5. mg/kg bw/day (the no observed adverse effect level set by different regulatory bodies). This paper summarizes the conclusions of a collective assessment conducted by an expert Working Group from AFSSA. Studies were classified into 3 groups: (i) finding no toxicity, (ii) reporting results not considered to be of concern and (iii) indicating warning signals. The term " warning signal" means that no formal conclusion can be drawn regarding the establishment of a health based guidance value but the study raises some questions about the toxicity of BPA at low doses. It was concluded that studies are needed to ascertain the significance for human health of these warning signals and to be able to propose new methodologies for assessing the risks associated with low doses of BPA and more generally of endocrine disruptors. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.


Dorne J.L.C.M.,European Food Safety Authority | Fernandez-Cruz M.L.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion Y Tecnologia Agraria Y Alimentaria | Bertelsen U.,European Food Safety Authority | Renshaw D.W.,Food Standards Agency | And 6 more authors.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to adversely affect the health of consumers. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Guionie O.,Avian and Rabbit Virology Immunology and Parasitology Unit | Guillou-Cloarec C.,Avian and Rabbit Virology Immunology and Parasitology Unit | Courtois D.,AFSSA | Bougeard S.,Epidemiology and Quality Assurance in Pig Production Research Unit | And 2 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2010

Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza (AI) is enzootic in several countries of Asia and Africa and constitutes a major threat, at the world level, for both animal and public health. Ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of AI, including HP H5N1 AI. Although vaccination can be a useful tool to control AI, duck vaccination has not proved very efficient in the field, indicating a need to develop new vaccines and a challenge model to evaluate the protection for duck species. Although Muscovy duck is the duck species most often reared in France, the primary duck-producing country in Europe, and is also produced in Asia, it is rarely studied. Our team recently demonstrated a good cross-reactivity with hemagglutinin from clade 2.2 and inferred that this could be a good vaccine candidate for ducks. Two challenges using two French H5N1 HP strains, 1) A/mute swan/France/06299/ 06 (Swan/06299), clade 2.2.1, and 2) A/mute swan/France/070203/07 (Swan/070203), clade 2.2 (but different from subclade 2.2.1), were performed (each) on 20 Muscovy ducks (including five contacts) inoculated by oculo-nasal route (6 log 10 median egg infectious doses per duck). Clinical signs were recorded daily, and cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected throughout the assay. Autopsies were done on all dead ducks, and organs were taken for analyses. Virus was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase- PCR based on the M gene AI virus. Ducks presented severe nervous signs in both challenges. Swan/070203 strain led to 80% morbidity (12/15 sick ducks) and 73% mortality (11/15 ducks) at 13.5 days postinfection (dpi), whereas Swan/06299 strain produced 100% mortality at 6.5 dpi. Viral RNA load was significantly lower via the cloacal route than via the oropharyngeal route in both trials, presenting a peak in the first challenge at 3.5 dpi and being more stable in the second challenge. The brain was the organ containing the highest viral RNA load in both challenges. Viral RNA load in a given organ was similar or statistically significantly higher in ducks challenged with Swan/06299 strain. Thus, the Swan/06299 strain was more virulent and could be used as a putative challenge model. Moreover, challenged ducks and contacts contained the same amounts of viral RNA load, demonstrating the rapid and efficient transmission of H5N1 HP in Muscovy ducks in our experimental conditions. © 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.


Zocevic A.,AFSSA | MacE P.,AFSSA | Vallee I.,AFSSA | Blaga R.,AFSSA | And 3 more authors.
Parasitology | Year: 2011

Three expression cDNA libraries from Trichinella spiralis worms 14 h, 20 h and 48 h post-infection (p.i.) were screened with serum from pigs experimentally infected with 20000 T. spiralis muscle larvae. Twenty-nine positive clones were isolated from the 14 h p.i. cDNA library, corresponding to 8 different genes. A putative excretory-secretory protein similar to that of T. pseudospiralis was identified. Three clones corresponded to a T. spiralis serine proteinase inhibitor known to be involved in diverse functions such as blood coagulation and modulation of inflammation. Screening of the 20 h p.i. cDNA library selected 167 positive clones representing 12 different sequences. The clone with the highest redundancy encoded a small polypeptide having no sequence identity with any known proteins from Trichinella or other organisms. Fourteen clones displayed sequence identity with the heat shock protein (HSP) 70. HSPs are produced as an adaptive response of the parasite to the hostile environment encountered in the host intestine but their mechanism of action is not yet well defined. From the 48 h p.i. T. spiralis cDNA library, 91 positive clones were identified representing 7 distinct sequences. Most of the positive clones showed high similarity with a member of a putative T. spiralis serine protease family. This result is consistent with a possible major role for serine proteases during invasive stages of Trichinella infection and host-parasite interactions. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.


Cortez-Romero C.,Collège de France | Fieni F.,Collège de France | Russo P.,AFSSA | Pepin M.,AFSSA | And 2 more authors.
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2011

Contents: Maedi Visna virus (MVV) causes progressive degenerative inflammatory disease in multiple organs including the lungs (pneumonia, 'maedi'), mammary gland, joints and nervous system (meningoencephalomyelitis, 'visna') in sheep. Maedi Visna Virus has been detected in macrophages of several tissues and epithelial cells in vivo: bone marrow, cells of the central nervous system, lung and bronchial tissues, milk epithelial cells recovered from milk samples and epithelial cells of mammary tissue. However, the presence of MVV in the genital tracts of naturally infected ewes has not previously been studied. The aim of this study was to use nested-PCR, targeting the gag gene, to determine whether genital tissues (ovaries, oviducts and uterus) from 83 ewes originating from various breeding herds in the South-East of France were positive for MVV-proviral DNA. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) tested positive for MVV-proviral DNA, using nested-PCR analysis, in 57.8% of ewes (48/83). The provirus was also identified in 47% (78/166) of the ovaries, 38.6% (64/166) of the oviducts and 45.8% (38/83) of the uteri sampled. These findings clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that tissue samples from the genital tract of ewes (ovary, oviduct and uterus) can be infected with MVV. This suggests that there is a risk of vertical and/or horizontal transmission of MVV during embryo transfer from embryos produced in vivo or in vitro. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Fessard V.,AFSSA | Le Hegarat L.,AFSSA
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

Humans can be exposed to aquatic toxins mainly through contamination of food and water (drinking and recreational). Among these toxins, contamination by both phycotoxins occurring in shellfish and cyanotoxins mostly involved in freshwater bodies are of concern for public health. Whereas regulations exist to evaluate the genotoxicity of most compounds to which humans are exposed, including drugs and chemicals, no regulations have been established for these compounds. In this paper, we show that the same strategy including both in vitro and in vivo tests can be followed to evaluate the genotoxicity of aquatic toxins (phycotoxins and cyanotoxins). However, this strategy encountered different limits which arise when completing an overview of the genotoxic potential of toxins. The most restrictive one is undoubtedly the low amount (even the lack sometimes) of purified toxins available. Solutions and recommendations for testing the genotoxicity of aquatic toxins are suggested to overcome the specific problems encountered with these compounds. It must be kept in mind that recent developments in drug toxicology should be considered and that experiments must be conducted in respect of the 3Rs principle of refinement, reduction and replacement for animal experimentation. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


PubMed | AFSSA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Parasitology | Year: 2011

Three expression cDNA libraries from Trichinella spiralis worms 14 h, 20 h and 48 h post-infection (p.i.) were screened with serum from pigs experimentally infected with 20,000 T. spiralis muscle larvae. Twenty-nine positive clones were isolated from the 14 h p.i. cDNA library, corresponding to 8 different genes. A putative excretory-secretory protein similar to that of T. pseudospiralis was identified. Three clones corresponded to a T. spiralis serine proteinase inhibitor known to be involved in diverse functions such as blood coagulation and modulation of inflammation. Screening of the 20 h p.i. cDNA library selected 167 positive clones representing 12 different sequences. The clone with the highest redundancy encoded a small polypeptide having no sequence identity with any known proteins from Trichinella or other organisms. Fourteen clones displayed sequence identity with the heat shock protein (HSP) 70. HSPs are produced as an adaptive response of the parasite to the hostile environment encountered in the host intestine but their mechanism of action is not yet well defined. From the 48 h p.i. T. spiralis cDNA library, 91 positive clones were identified representing 7 distinct sequences. Most of the positive clones showed high similarity with a member of a putative T. spiralis serine protease family. This result is consistent with a possible major role for serine proteases during invasive stages of Trichinella infection and host-parasite interactions.

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