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Dufour M.-C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Fontaine S.,AFSSA | Montarry J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Corio-Costet M.-F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Pest Management Science | Year: 2011

Background: Management of grapevine powdery mildew Erysiphe necator Schw. requires fungicide treatments such as sterol demethylation inhibitors (DMIs) or mitochondrial inhibitors (QoIs). Recently, reduction in the efficacy of DMIs or QoIs was reported in Europe and the United States. The aim of the present study was to develop real-time qPCR tools to detect and quantify several CYP51 gene variants of E. necator: (i) A versus B groups (G37A) and (ii) sensitive versus resistant to sterol demethylase inhibitor fungicides (Y136F).Results: The efficacy of the qPCR tools developed was better than the CAPS method, with a limit of 2 pg for E necator DNA, 0.06 ng for genetic group A and 1.4 ng for the DMI-resistant allele. The detection limits of qPCR protocols (LOD) ranged from 0.72 to 0.85%, and the quantification limits (LOQ) ranged from 2.4 to 2.85% for the two alleles G47A and Y136F respectively. The application of qPCR to field isolates from French vineyards showed the presence of DMI-resistant and/or QoI-resistant alleles in French pathogen populations, linked to genetic group B.Conclusion: The real-time PCR assay developed in this study provides a potentially useful tool for efficient quantification of different alleles of interest for fungicide monitoring and for population structure of E. necator. © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry. Source


Dorne J.L.C.M.,European Food Safety Authority | Fernandez-Cruz M.L.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion Y Tecnologia Agraria Y Alimentaria | Bertelsen U.,European Food Safety Authority | Renshaw D.W.,Food Standards Agency | And 6 more authors.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to adversely affect the health of consumers. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source


Lange M.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Van der Stede Y.,CODA | Meroc E.,CODA | Durand B.,AFSSA
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2011

In recent years the vector-borne diseases (VBD) are (re)-emerging and spreading across the world having a profound impact on human and veterinary health, ecology, socio-economics and disease management. Arguably the best-documented example of veterinary importance is the recent twofold invasion of bluetongue (BT) in Europe. Much attention has been devoted to derive presence-absence habitat distribution models and to model transmission through direct contact. Limited research has focused on the dynamic modelling of wind mediated BT spread. This paper shows the results of a stochastic predictive model used to assess the spread of bluetongue by vectors considering both wind-independent and wind-mediated movement of the vectors. The model was parameterised using epidemiological knowledge from the BTV8 epidemic in 2006/2007 and the BTV1 epidemic in 2008 in South-France. The model correctly reflects the total surface of the infected zone (overall accuracy = 0.77; sensitivity = 0.94; specificity = 0.65) whilst slightly overestimating spatial case density. The model was used operationally in spring 2009 to predict further spread of BTV1. This allowed veterinary officers in Belgium to decide whether there was a risk of introduction of BTV1 from France into Belgium and thus, whether there was a need for vaccination. Given the far distance from the predicted infected zone to the Belgian border, it was decided not to vaccinate against BTV1 in 2009 in Belgium. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Arnich N.,AFSSA | Canivenc-Lavier M.-C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Kolf-Clauw M.,National Veterinary School of Toulouse | Coffigny H.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health | Year: 2011

Since more than 10 years, risk assessment of bisphenol A (BPA) is debated at the international level. In 2008, the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) expressed some concern for adverse effects, at current level of exposure to BPA, on developmental toxicity. In this context, the French Food Safety Agency (AFSSA) decided to review the toxicity data on BPA with a special focus on this endpoint at doses below 5. mg/kg bw/day (the no observed adverse effect level set by different regulatory bodies). This paper summarizes the conclusions of a collective assessment conducted by an expert Working Group from AFSSA. Studies were classified into 3 groups: (i) finding no toxicity, (ii) reporting results not considered to be of concern and (iii) indicating warning signals. The term " warning signal" means that no formal conclusion can be drawn regarding the establishment of a health based guidance value but the study raises some questions about the toxicity of BPA at low doses. It was concluded that studies are needed to ascertain the significance for human health of these warning signals and to be able to propose new methodologies for assessing the risks associated with low doses of BPA and more generally of endocrine disruptors. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. Source


Garcia-Migura L.,Technical University of Denmark | Sunde M.,Veterinaerinstituttet Seksjon For Bakteriologi | Karlsmose S.,Technical University of Denmark | Veldman K.,Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR | And 16 more authors.
Microbial Drug Resistance | Year: 2012

This study was conducted to elucidate the accuracy of the current streptomycin epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. A total of 236 Salmonella enterica and 208 E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs between 4 and 32 mg/L were selected from 12 countries. Isolates were investigated by polymerase chain reaction for aadA, strA, and strB streptomycin resistance genes. Out of 236 Salmonella isolates, 32 (13.5%) yielded amplicons for aadA (n=23), strA (n=9), and strB (n=11). None of the 60 Salmonella isolates exhibiting MIC 4mg/L harbored resistance genes. Of the Salmonella isolates exhibiting MICs 8mg/L, 16mg/L, and 32mg/L, 1.6%, 15%, and 39%, respectively, tested positive for one or more genes. For most monitoring programs, the streptomycin ECOFF for Salmonella is wild type (WT) ≤32 or ≤16mg/L. A cut-off value of WT ≤32mg/L would have misclassified 13.5% of the strains as belonging to the WT population, since this proportion of strains harbored resistance genes and exhibited MICs ≤32mg/L. Out of 208 E. coli strains, 80 (38.5%) tested positive for aadA (n=69), strA (n=18), and strB (n=31). Of the E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs of 4mg/L, 8mg/L, 16mg/L, and 32mg/L, 3.6%, 17.6%, 53%, and 82.3%, respectively, harbored any of the three genes. Based on the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing guidelines (ECOFF ≤16mg/L), 25% of the E. coli strains presenting MIC ≤16mg/L would have been incorrectly categorized as belonging to the WT population. The authors recommend an ECOFF value of WT ≤16mg/L for Salmonella and WT ≤8mg/L for E. coli. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012. Source

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