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Bangkok, Thailand

Roobsoong W.,Mahidol University | Roytrakul S.,National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | Sattabongkot J.,AFRIMS | Li J.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2011

With the genome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax sequenced, it is important to determine the proteomes of the parasite in order to assist efforts in antigen and drug target discovery. Since a method for continuous culture of P. vivax parasite is not available, we tried to study the proteome of the erythrocytic stages using fresh parasite isolates from patients. In schizont-enriched samples, 316 proteins were confidently identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Almost 50% of the identified proteins were hypothetical, while other major categories include proteins with binding function, protein fate, protein synthesis, metabolism and cellular transport. To identify proteins that are recognized by host humoral immunity, parasite proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and screened by Western blot using an immune serum from a P. vivax patient. Mass spectrometry analysis of protein spots recognized by the serum identified four potential antigens including PV24. The recombinant protein PV24 was recognized by antibodies from vivax malaria patients even during the convalescent period, indicating that PV24 could elicit long-lasting antibody responses in P. vivax patients. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Cui L.,Pennsylvania State University | Cui L.,Chongqing Normal University | Yan G.,University of California at Irvine | Yan G.,Chongqing Normal University | And 11 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2012

Despite significant improvement in the malaria situation of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), malaria control for the region continues to face a multitude of challenges. The extremely patchy malaria distribution, especially along international borders, makes disease surveillance and targeted control difficult. The vector systems are also diverse with dramatic differences in habitat ecology, biting behavior, and vectorial capacity, and there is a lack of effective transmission surveillance and control tools. Finally, in an era of heavy deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapies, the region acts as an epicenter of drug resistance, with the emergence of artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum posing a threat to both regional and global malaria elimination campaigns. This problem is further exacerbated by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin drugs. Accordingly, this Southeast Asian Malaria Research Center, consisting of a consortium of US and regional research institutions, has proposed four interlinked projects to address these most urgent problems in malaria control. The aims of these projects will help to substantially improve our understanding of malaria epidemiology, vector systems and their roles in malaria transmission, as well as the mechanisms of drug resistance in parasites. Through the training of next-generation scientists in malaria research, this program will help build up and strengthen regional research infrastructure and capacities, which are essential for sustained malaria control in this region. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Takhampunya R.,AFRIMS | Tippayachai B.,AFRIMS | Promsathaporn S.,AFRIMS | Leepitakrat S.,AFRIMS | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014

Characterization of the 56-kDa type-specific antigen (TSA) genes of Orientia tsutsugamushi (OT) from three naturally infected, laboratory-reared mite colonies comprising three species (Leptotrombidium deliense [Ld], Leptotrombidium imphalum [Li], and Leptotrombidium chiangraiensis [Lc]) has revealed the presence of single and coexisting OT genotypes found in individual chiggers. The Karp genotype was found in all of the chiggers examined, whereas Gilliam and UT302 genotypes were only observed in combination with the Karp genotype. From analysis of these OT genotypes after transmission from chiggers to mice it was determined that with the Lc and Li mites, the OT genotype composition in the rodent spleens post-infection had not changed and therefore resembled that observed in the feeding chiggers. However, only the Karp genotype was found in rodents after feeding by Ld chiggers carrying Karp and Gilliam genotypes. The current findings reveal a complex association among the host, pathogen, and vector. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Cui L.,Pennsylvania State University | Cui L.,Chongqing Normal University | Yan G.,University of California at Irvine | Yan G.,Chongqing Normal University | And 18 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2012

The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by 'border malaria' and 'forest malaria' with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. 'Border malaria' is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is severely undermined due to high prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in target human populations. In the GMS, the dramatically different ecologies, diverse vector systems, and insecticide resistance render traditional mosquito control less efficient. Here we attempt to review the changing malaria epidemiology in the GMS, analyze the vector systems and patterns of malaria transmission, and identify the major challenges the malaria control community faces on its way to malaria elimination. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Chuangchaiya S.,Mahidol University | Jangpatarapongsa K.,Mahidol University | Sattabongkot J.,AFRIMS | Pattanapanyasat K.,Mahidol University | And 4 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Immunology | Year: 2010

Summary Plasmodium falciparum infection causes transient immunosuppression during the parasitaemic stage. However, the immune response during simultaneous infections with both P. vivax and P. falciparum has been investigated rarely. In particular, it is not clear whether the host's immune response to malaria will be different when infected with a single or mixed malaria species. Phenotypes of T cells from mixed P. vivax-P. falciparum (PV-PF) infection were characterized by flow cytometry, and anti-malarial antibodies in the plasma were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found the percentage of CD3 +δ2+-T cell receptor (TCR) T cells in the acute-mixed PV-PF infection and single P. vivax infection three times higher than in the single P. falciparum infection. This implied that P. vivax might lead to the host immune response to the production of effector T killer cells. During the parasitaemic stage, the mixed PV-PF infection had the highest number of plasma antibodies against both P. vivax and P. falciparum. Interestingly, plasma from the group of single P. vivax or P. falciparum malaria infections had both anti-P. vivax and anti-P. falciparum antibodies. In addition, antigenic cross-reactivity of P. vivax or P. falciparum resulting in antibodies against both malaria species was shown in the supernatant of lymphocyte cultures cross-stimulated with either antigen of P. vivax or P. falciparum. The role of δ2 ± TCR T cells and the antibodies against both species during acute mixed malaria infection could have an impact on the immunity to malaria infection. © 2009 British Society for Immunology.

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