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Nackoney J.,University of Maryland University College | Williams D.,African Wildlife Foundation
Biological Conservation | Year: 2013

Including a diverse set of stakeholders in collaborative land use planning processes is facilitated by data and maps that communicate and inform an array of possible planning options and potential scenarios of future land use change. In northern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the African Wildlife Foundation (AWF) has engaged stakeholders and the DRC Government to lead a participatory zoning process in the Maringa-Lopori-Wamba (MLW) Landscape. To assist landscape scale macro-zoning efforts, we employed a spatial allocation decision support tool called Marxan to develop a set of three scenarios of potential human and agricultural expansion for 2050. The results offer guidance to stakeholders and assist decision-makers in determining the most suitable land for inclusion in a proposed Rural Development Zone (RDZ), designed to accommodate the expansion of agricultural activities and subsequent deforestation while considering conservation priority areas. We used data describing current patterns of human activity, including historical primary forest loss, land cover suitability for agricultural activity, and presence of important wildlife connectivity zones and protected areas to identify locations where future agricultural expansion might be encouraged. We found that future agricultural demands can be met by expansion around historically intensive agricultural areas in the eastern portion of MLW without significantly compromising conservation priority areas. Wildlife connectivity zones are most vulnerable to future agricultural expansion because of their proximity to current agricultural activity. Our results demonstrate the need to prioritize conservation action in these areas and illustrate how competing needs might be balanced in planning for both agricultural expansion and terrestrial biological conservation in this landscape. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kalavar J.M.,Pennsylvania State University | Buzinde C.N.,Arizona State University | Simon J.,African Wildlife Foundation
Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology | Year: 2014

Besides wildlife tourism in the African savannah, cultural heritage tourism (sometimes known only as heritage tourism) is a big draw in Tanzania. In order to attract cultural tourism dollars, Maasai communities have established cultural bomas, typically pseudo Maasai villages where they display cultural performances and crafts before tourists. Such cultural contact has resulted in the growing influence of globalization that challenges traditional ways. The economic, social and environmental impact of heritage tourism on intergenerational relationships and community well-being has not been examined among the Maasai people. In this study, focus groups were conducted with different age-groups of Maasai people residing in Esilalei and Oltukai villages. Results suggest that for the Maasai, heritage tourism appears to be a double-edged sword. While tourism results in some trickled down economic benefits for the Maasai community, economic change appears to have created a social distance between generations. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Mandima J.,African Wildlife Foundation | Mandima J.,University of Eastern Finland | Kortet R.,University of Eastern Finland | Sarvala J.,University of Turku
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2016

The offshore pelagic niche in Lake Kariba is mainly occupied by the Tanganyika sardine, Limnothrissa miodon, commonly called ‘kapenta’, which is a mainly zooplanktivorous clupeid fish. The population dynamics of kapenta fluctuate seasonally in synchrony with the physical processes that shape the trophic status of the lake. Diel feeding periodicity and mean stomach fullness of L. miodon were used to estimate the daily ration and food consumption rates of the population. The daily ration (Rd) was estimated from mean stomach contents and evacuation rates calculated using the modified Bajkov (Trans Am Fish Soc 65:288–289, 1935) formula. Data on stomach contents present at different time intervals over continuous feeding cycles under experimental conditions were analysed. The results show a daily ration of 8.8–9.9% of fresh body weight day−1. The estimated whole population food consumption rate suggests very efficient grazing. The present data enable estimations of the potential standing biomass of L. miodon sustained by the lake under known zooplankton biomass regimes. This basis can be utilised further in future work focusing on spatial and temporal dynamics and climate change scenarios to provide a realistic food consumption estimate for the L. miodon population in Lake Kariba and similar artificial reservoirs. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland Source

Gidna A.O.,IDEA Institute Evolucion en africa | Gidna A.O.,Paleontology Unit | Kisui B.,African Wildlife Foundation | Mabulla A.,University of Dar es Salaam | And 3 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

Actualistic observations on modern lions (Panthera leo) from Tarangire National Park (Tanzania) have expanded the reported range of carcass consumption behaviors by these felids. The present study confirms that lions efficiently deflesh small and medium-sized carcasses and they can even thoroughly deflesh carcasses heavier than 500 kg, such as those of buffaloes. Ecology plays a major role in the intensity with which lions deflesh their prey. The most intensive carcass consumption episodes in Tarangire were documented in alluvial environments near water. Bone damage is proportional to the intensity of carcass consumption and upper limb bones, usually the most defleshed elements, are also the most heavily damaged. Butchery experiments with stone tools modelling secondary access to lion kills yielded a low cut mark frequency with an anatomical distribution of cut marks occurring more frequently on intermediate than on upper limb bones and on ends and metadiaphyses than on mid-shafts. The combination of the damage inflicted by lions on bones and the occurrence of cut marks as the result of secondary-access butchery by humans provides a heuristic framework with which to understand similar patterns in the archaeological record. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. Source

Packer C.,University of Minnesota | Brink H.,University of Kent | Kissui B.M.,African Wildlife Foundation | Maliti H.,Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Conservation Biology | Year: 2011

Tanzania holds most of the remaining large populations of African lions (Panthera leo) and has extensive areas of leopard habitat (Panthera pardus), and both species are subjected to sizable harvests by sport hunters. As a first step toward establishing sustainable management strategies, we analyzed harvest trends for lions and leopards across Tanzania's 300,000 km2 of hunting blocks. We summarize lion population trends in protected areas where lion abundance has been directly measured and data on the frequency of lion attacks on humans in high-conflict agricultural areas. We place these findings in context of the rapidly growing human population in rural Tanzania and the concomitant effects of habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and cultural practices. Lion harvests declined by 50% across Tanzania between 1996 and 2008, and hunting areas with the highest initial harvests suffered the steepest declines. Although each part of the country is subject to some form of anthropogenic impact from local people, the intensity of trophy hunting was the only significant factor in a statistical analysis of lion harvest trends. Although leopard harvests were more stable, regions outside the Selous Game Reserve with the highest initial leopard harvests again showed the steepest declines. Our quantitative analyses suggest that annual hunting quotas be limited to 0.5 lions and 1.0 leopard/1000 km2 of hunting area, except hunting blocks in the Selous Game Reserve, where harvests should be limited to 1.0 lion and 3.0 leopards/1000 km2. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology. Source

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