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Mariner J.C.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | Hendrickx S.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | Pfeiffer D.U.,Lane College | Costard S.,Lane College | And 15 more authors.
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2011

Animal health surveillance is essential for protecting public health, enhancing access to international markets for animals and their products, and improving animal health, production and welfare. It is of vital importance for protecting and improving the livelihoods of diverse groups of livestock keepers and stakeholders in livestock value chains. Surveillance systems consist of sets of complementary components which generate information to inform risk assessment, decision-making and policy formulation for both national programmes and international trade. Participatory approaches have the potential to add value to surveillance systems by enhancing their performance, especially their sensitivity and timeliness, and encouraging the inclusion of marginalised groups. This paper summarises key considerations in the assessment and design of animal health surveillance and discusses how participatory approaches can be integrated into comprehensive surveillance systems, leading to a more effective overall outcome for both domestic and international purposes.

Knight-Jones T.J.D.,The Pirbright Institute | Knight-Jones T.J.D.,University of London | Njeumi F.,Food and Agriculture Organisation AGAH | Elsawalhy A.,African Union InterAfrican Bureau for Animal Resources | And 4 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2014

Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases.Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced.The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing.Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Cooper J.E.,University of Nairobi | Cooper J.E.,University of Cambridge | Deacon A.E.,Center for Biological Diversity | Nyariki T.,African Union Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources
Ostrich | Year: 2014

Recent largely unexplained deaths in African flamingos have prompted the need for standard, reproducible methods for the post-mortem examination of these birds, for the taking of samples and for the recording of findings. Here we describe suitable techniques and present three distinct protocols for field-based post-mortem examination of flamingos that can be employed flexibly, depending on the circumstances, by veterinarians and non-professionals alike. The adoption of these protocols is strongly recommended to improve standardisation of data and sample collection, which will ultimately enhance our understanding of the causes of mortality in African flamingos. © 2014 Copyright NISC (Pty) Ltd.

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