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Passo Tsamo C.V.,Institute Des Science Of La Vie | Passo Tsamo C.V.,Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plant Studies | Herent M.-F.,Leuven Drug Research Institute | Tomekpe K.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2015

The effect of boiling on pulp and peel phenolic profiles of five plantain cultivars and the plantain hybrid F568 was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-linear trap quadrupole-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) and HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) analysis on sample extracts obtained by a solid/liquid extraction. Total soluble solids, pH, water, and total ash contents were also determined. After boiling the whole fruit, total phenolics decreased considerably in the peel (34.3% on average), whereas no significant change was observed in the pulp after boiling with or without peel. With regards to individual phenolic compounds, all the peel flavonols decreased except for myricetin-deoxyhexose-hexoside, with maximum losses of 61.3% and 59.8% of kaempferol-3- O-rutinoside and rutin, respectively, for the cultivar Red Yade. In both pulp and peel, ferulic acid was apparently released from its conjugated forms after boiling, with increases of 63.7% after boiling with peel and of 33.2% after boiling without peel in the pulp of the cultivar Moto Ebanga. Changes in water and total ash contents also suggested a protective effect of the peel. Finally, the principal component analysis revealed that peel total ash content and pH were strongly correlated to the decrease in phenolics. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Valerie Passo Tsamo C.,Catholic University of Louvain | Valerie Passo Tsamo C.,Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plant Studies IMPM | Andre C.M.,Public Research Center | Ritter C.,Catholic University of Louvain | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

This study aimed at understanding the contribution of the fruit physicochemical parameters to Musa sp. diversity and plantain ripening stages. A discriminant analysis was first performed on a collection of 35 Musa sp. cultivars, organized in six groups based on the consumption mode (dessert or cooking banana) and the genomic constitution. A principal component analysis reinforced by a logistic regression on plantain cultivars was proposed as an analytical approach to describe the plantain ripening stages. The results of the discriminant analysis showed that edible fraction, peel pH, pulp water content, and pulp total phenolics were among the most contributing attributes for the discrimination of the cultivar groups. With mean values ranging from 65.4 to 247.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of fresh weight, the pulp total phenolics strongly differed between interspecific and monospecific cultivars within dessert and nonplantain cooking bananas. The results of the logistic regression revealed that the best models according to fitting parameters involved more than one physicochemical attribute. Interestingly, pulp and peel total phenolic contents contributed in the building up of these models. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Passo Tsamo C.V.,Institute Des Science Of La Vie | Passo Tsamo C.V.,Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plant Studies | Herent M.-F.,Leuven Drug Research Institute | Tomekpe K.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 5 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

The present study investigated the phenolic profiles of the pulp and peel of nine plantain cultivars and compared them to those of two dessert bananas of commercial interest (Grand Nain and Gros Michel), alongside a newly created hybrid, resistant to black sigatoka disease (F568). Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds were performed by means of HPLC-ESI-HR-MS and HPLC-DAD. Hydroxycinnamic acids, particularly ferulic acid-hexoside with 4.4-85.1 μg/g of dry weight, dominated in the plantain pulp and showed a large diversity among cultivars. Flavonol glycosides were predominant in plantain peels, rutin (242.2-618.7 μg/g of dry weight) being the most abundant. A principal component analysis on the whole data revealed that the phenolic profiles of the hybrid, the dessert bananas and the pure plantains differed from each other. Plantain pulps and peels appeared as good sources of phenolics, which could be involved in the health benefits associated with their current applications. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Ngando J.E.,African Research Center on Banana and Plantain | Rieux A.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Nguidjo O.,African Research Center on Banana and Plantain | Pignolet L.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 5 more authors.
Pest Management Science | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Black leaf streak disease (BLSD) is the most important disease of bananas for export. The successful control of BLSD requires an intensive use of systemic fungicides, leading to the build-up of resistance and failure of control. Early detection of fungicide resistance is crucial to drive rational chemical strategies. Present methods relying on ascospore germination bioassays have several drawbacks that could be overcome using conidia. RESULTS: Generally, a single genotype is present on the conidial population derived from one lesion. Conidial germination tests with thiabendazole (5mgL-1) enable a clear detection of strains resistant to methyl benzimidazole carbamates. Germination bioassays on azoxystrobin (10mgL-1) enable the detection of most QoI-resistant strains, but their proportion might be underestimated with cut-off limits of germ tube length (L > 120μm) or growth inhibition (GI < 50%). The level of fungicide resistance differs at different canopy levels of a banana tree, which should be considered for sampling. The ascospore germination bioassay provided more variable estimations of the level of resistance by comparison with the new conidial germination bioassay. CONCLUSION: Germination bioassays performed with conidia obtained from young lesions overcome most drawbacks encountered with ascospore germination bioassays and could be considered as a new reference method for fungicide resistance monitoring in this species. Different steps are proposed, from sampling to microscopic examinations, for the implementation of this technique. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

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