African Population Health Research Center

Nairobi, Kenya

African Population Health Research Center

Nairobi, Kenya
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Voltaire L.,University of the Littoral Opal Coast | Donfouet H.P.P.,African Population & Health Research Center | Pirrone C.,University of Western Brittany | Larzilliere A.,Parc Naturel Regional dArmorique
Ecological Economics | Year: 2017

This paper explores the potential link between the sensitivity of willingness to pay (WTP) to the order of presenting bid amounts in contingent valuation questions (ordering effect) and respondent uncertainty. The resource being valued is a public project to protect salt marshes against the spread of an invasive aquatic plant in the Brest roadstead (France). Valuation uncertainty is captured through a variant of payment card format where respondents are given the opportunity to report their WTP as either a single value (Option A) or an interval of values (Option B). The ordering effect is tested using both parametric models that ignore and control for the potential sample selection bias related to the choice between Option A and Option B, as well as non-parametric models. The results suggest that (1) respondents place substantial WTP values on salt marsh conservation, and (2) the ordering effect is linked to respondent uncertainty since only uncertain respondents react differently to changes in the order of presenting bid amounts. Specifically, for uncertain respondents, putting bid amounts in ascending order yields lower welfare estimates than putting bid amounts in descending order or random order. Policy recommendations and options to deal with ordering effect are discussed. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Keesara S.R.,University of California at San Francisco | Juma P.A.,African Population Health Research Center | Harper C.C.,University of California at San Francisco
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2015

Background: Nearly 40 % of women in developing countries seek contraceptives services from the private sector. However, the reasons that contraceptive clients choose private or public providers are not well studied. Methods: We conducted six focus groups discussions and 51 in-depth interviews with postpartum women (n=61) to explore decision-making about contraceptive use after delivery, including facility choice. Results: When seeking contraceptive services, women in this study preferred private over public facilities due to convenience and timeliness of services. Women avoided public facilities due to long waits and disrespectful providers. Study participants reported, however, that they felt more confident about the technical medical quality in public facilities than in private, and believed that private providers prioritized profit over safe medical practice. Women reported that public facilities offered comprehensive counseling and chose these facilities when they needed contraceptive decision-support. Provision of comprehensive counseling and screening, including side effects counseling and management, determined perception of quality. Conclusion: Women believed private providers offered the advantages of convenience, efficiency and privacy, though they did not consistently offer high-quality care. Quality-improvement of contraceptive care at private facilities could include technical standardization and accreditation. Development of support and training for side effect management may be an important intervention to improve perceived quality of care. © 2015 Keesara et al.


Wekesah F.M.,African Population Health Research Center | Wekesah F.M.,Utrecht Medical Center | Mbada C.E.,African Population Health Research Center | Mbada C.E.,Obafemi Awolowo University | And 4 more authors.
Systematic Reviews | Year: 2016

Background: Many interventions have been implemented to improve maternal health outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Currently, however, systematic information on the effectiveness of these interventions remains scarce. We conducted a systematic review of published evidence on non-drug interventions that reported effectiveness in improving outcomes and quality of care in maternal health in SSA. Methods: African Journals Online, Bioline, MEDLINE, Ovid, Science Direct, and Scopus databases were searched for studies published in English between 2000 and 2015 and reporting on the effectiveness of interventions to improve quality and outcomes of maternal health care in SSA. Articles focusing on interventions that involved drug treatments, medications, or therapies were excluded. We present a narrative synthesis of the reported impact of these interventions on maternal morbidity and mortality outcomes as well as on other dimensions of the quality of maternal health care (as defined by the Institute of Medicine 2001 to comprise safety, effectiveness, efficiency, timeliness, patient centeredness, and equitability). Results: Seventy-three studies were included in this review. Non-drug interventions that directly or indirectly improved quality of maternal health and morbidity and mortality outcomes in SSA assumed a variety of forms including mobile and electronic health, financial incentives on the demand and supply side, facility-based clinical audits and maternal death reviews, health systems strengthening interventions, community mobilization and/or peer-based programs, home-based visits, counseling and health educational and promotional programs conducted by health care providers, transportation and/or communication and referrals for emergency obstetric care, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and task shifting interventions. There was a preponderance of single facility and community-based studies whose effectiveness was difficult to assess. Conclusions: Many non-drug interventions have been implemented to improve maternal health care in SSA. These interventions have largely been health facility and/or community based. While the evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to improve maternal health is varied, study findings underscore the importance of implementing comprehensive interventions that strengthen different components of the health care systems, both in the community and at the health facilities, coupled with a supportive policy environment. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42015023750 © 2016 The Author(s).


PubMed | University of Witwatersrand, World Health Organization, MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on HIV AIDS, Ministry of Health and 7 more.
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2015

To compare national human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) policies influencing access to HIV testing and treatment services in six sub-Saharan African countries.We reviewed HIV policies as part of a multi-country study on adult mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. A policy extraction tool was developed and used to review national HIV policy documents and guidelines published in Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe between 2003 and 2013. Key informant interviews helped to fill gaps in findings. National policies were categorized according to whether they explicitly or implicitly adhered to 54 policy indicators, identified through literature and expert reviews. We also compared the national policies with World Health Organization (WHO) guidance.There was wide variation in policies between countries; each country was progressive in some areas and not in others. Malawi was particularly advanced in promoting rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy. However, no country had a consistently enabling policy context expected to increase access to care and prevent attrition. Countries went beyond WHO guidance in certain areas and key informants reported that practice often surpassed policy.Evaluating the impact of policy differences on access to care and health outcomes among people living with HIV is challenging. Certain policies will exert more influence than others and official policies are not always implemented. Future research should assess the extent of policy implementation and link these findings with HIV outcomes.


PubMed | University of California at San Francisco and African Population Health Research Center
Type: | Journal: BMC health services research | Year: 2015

Nearly 40% of women in developing countries seek contraceptives services from the private sector. However, the reasons that contraceptive clients choose private or public providers are not well studied.We conducted six focus groups discussions and 51 in-depth interviews with postpartum women (n=61) to explore decision-making about contraceptive use after delivery, including facility choice.When seeking contraceptive services, women in this study preferred private over public facilities due to convenience and timeliness of services. Women avoided public facilities due to long waits and disrespectful providers. Study participants reported, however, that they felt more confident about the technical medical quality in public facilities than in private, and believed that private providers prioritized profit over safe medical practice. Women reported that public facilities offered comprehensive counseling and chose these facilities when they needed contraceptive decision-support. Provision of comprehensive counseling and screening, including side effects counseling and management, determined perception of quality.Women believed private providers offered the advantages of convenience, efficiency and privacy, though they did not consistently offer high-quality care. Quality-improvement of contraceptive care at private facilities could include technical standardization and accreditation. Development of support and training for side effect management may be an important intervention to improve perceived quality of care.


Kerubo G.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology | Khamadi S.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | Okoth V.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | Madise N.,African Population Health Research Center | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: HIV-1 and Hepatitis B and C viruses coinfection is common in Sub-Saharan Africa due to similar routes of transmission and high levels of poverty. Most studies on HIV-1 and Hepatitis B and C viruses have occurred in hospital settings and blood transfusion units. Data on Hepatitis B and C viruses and HIV-1 coinfection in informal urban settlements in Kenya are scanty, yet they could partly explain the disproportionately high morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-1 infections in these slums. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B and C dual infection in urban slums in Nairobi. Methods: Blood samples were collected from residents of Viwandani and Korogocho between 2006 and 2007. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic data from participants. Samples were screened for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV and anti-HIV-1. Statistical analysis was done using STATA. Results: Samples were successfully collected from 418 (32%) men and 890 (68%) females. The HIV-1, HBV and HCV prevalence was 20.4%, 13.3% and 0.76% respectively at the time of the study. Of the 268 (20.4%) HIV-1 positive participants, 56 (4.26%) had HBV while 6 (0.46%) had HCV. Of the 1041 HIV-1 negative participants, 117 (8.9%) had HBV while 4 (0.31%) had HCV. Only two people (0.15%) were co-infected with all the three viruses together. Discussion: The odds of getting hepatitis infection were higher in HIV-1 participants (for HBV OR 2.08, p<0.005 and for HCV OR 5.93, p<0.005). HIV prevalence rates were similar in both informal settlements. HIV infection was highest in age group 35-39 years and among the divorced/separated or widowed. Prevalence of all viruses was highest in those who did not have any formal education. Conclusion: The HIV prevalence in these informal settlements suggests a higher rate than what is observed nationally. The prevalence rates of HBV are significantly higher in the HIV-1 positive and negative populations. HCV as well as triple HIV-1, HBV and HCV coinfection are uncommon in Korogocho and Viwandani. This clearly indicates the need for HIV-1 control programmes and hepatitis B virus vaccination to be promoted through public awareness as preventive strategy. © 2015 Kerubo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Faye O.,African Population Health Research Center | Faye O.,Center Detudes Of Populations | Baschieri A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Falkingham J.,University of Southampton | Muindi K.,African Population Health Research Center
Journal of Urban Health | Year: 2011

Although linked to poverty as conditions reflecting inadequate access to resources to obtain food, issues such as hunger and food insecurity have seldom been recognized as important in urban settings. Overall, little is known about the prevalence and magnitude of hunger and food insecurity in most cities. Yet, in sub-Saharan Africa where the majority of urban dwellers live on less than one dollar a day, it is obvious that a large proportion of the urban population must be satisfied with just one meal a day. This paper suggests using the one- and two-parameter item response theory models to infer a reliable and valid measure of hunger and food insecurity relevant to low-income urban settings, drawing evidence from the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System. The reliability and accuracy of the items are tested using both the Mokken scale analysis and the Cronbach test. The validity of the inferred household food insecurity measure is assessed by examining how it is associated with households' economic status. Results show that food insecurity is pervasive amongst slum dwellers in Nairobi. Only one household in five is food-secure, and nearly half of all households are categorized as "food-insecure with both adult and child hunger." Moreover, in line with what is known about household allocation of resources, evidence indicates that parents often forego food in order to prioritize their children. © 2011 The New York Academy of Medicine.


PubMed | Kenya Medical Research Institute, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology and African Population Health Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

HIV-1 and Hepatitis B and C viruses coinfection is common in Sub-Saharan Africa due to similar routes of transmission and high levels of poverty. Most studies on HIV-1 and Hepatitis B and C viruses have occurred in hospital settings and blood transfusion units. Data on Hepatitis B and C viruses and HIV-1 coinfection in informal urban settlements in Kenya are scanty, yet they could partly explain the disproportionately high morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-1 infections in these slums.The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B and C dual infection in urban slums in Nairobi.Blood samples were collected from residents of Viwandani and Korogocho between 2006 and 2007. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic data from participants. Samples were screened for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV and anti-HIV-1. Statistical analysis was done using STATA.Samples were successfully collected from 418 (32%) men and 890 (68%) females. The HIV-1, HBV and HCV prevalence was 20.4%, 13.3% and 0.76% respectively at the time of the study. Of the 268 (20.4%) HIV-1 positive participants, 56 (4.26%) had HBV while 6 (0.46%) had HCV. Of the 1041 HIV-1 negative participants, 117 (8.9%) had HBV while 4 (0.31%) had HCV. Only two people (0.15%) were co-infected with all the three viruses together.The odds of getting hepatitis infection were higher in HIV-1 participants (for HBV OR 2.08,p<0.005 and for HCV OR 5.93, p<0.005). HIV prevalence rates were similar in both informal settlements. HIV infection was highest in age group 35-39 years and among the divorced/separated or widowed. Prevalence of all viruses was highest in those who did not have any formal education.The HIV prevalence in these informal settlements suggests a higher rate than what is observed nationally. The prevalence rates of HBV are significantly higher in the HIV-1 positive and negative populations. HCV as well as triple HIV-1, HBV and HCV coinfection are uncommon in Korogocho and Viwandani. This clearly indicates the need for HIV-1 control programmes and hepatitis B virus vaccination to be promoted through public awareness as preventive strategy.


Buigut S.,American University in Dubai | Ettarh R.,African Population Health Research Center | Amendah D.D.,African Population Health Research Center
International Journal for Equity in Health | Year: 2015

Background: In Kenya, where 60 to 80% of the urban residents live in informal settlements (frequently referred to as slums), out-of-pocket (OOP) payments account for more than a third of national health expenditures. However, little is known on the extent to which these OOP payments are associated with personal or household financial catastrophe in the slums. This paper seeks to examine the incidence and determinants of catastrophic health expenditure among urban slum communities in Kenya. Methods: We use a unique dataset on informal settlement residents in Kenya and various approaches that relate households OOP payments for healthcare to total expenditures adjusted for subsistence, or income. We classified households whose OOP was in excess of a predefined threshold as facing catastrophic health expenditures (CHE), and identified the determinants of CHE using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The results indicate that the proportion of households facing CHE varies widely between 1.52% and 28.38% depending on the method and the threshold used. A core set of variables were found to be key determinants of CHE. The number of working adults in a household and membership in a social safety net appear to reduce the risk of catastrophic expenditure. Conversely, seeking care in a public or private hospital increases the risk of CHE. Conclusion: This study suggests that a substantial proportion of residents of informal settlements in Kenya face CHE and would likely forgo health care they need but cannot afford. Mechanisms that pool risk and cost (insurance) are needed to protect slum residents from CHE and improve equity in health care access and payment. © 2015 Buigut et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


PubMed | African Population Health Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2013

More than 70% of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are born in sub-Saharan Africa where the prevalence at birth of this disease reaches 2% or higher in some selected areas. There is a dearth of knowledge on comprehensive care received by children with SCD in sub-Saharan Africa and its associated cost. Such knowledge is important for setting prevention and treatment priorities at national and international levels. This study focuses on routine care for children with SCD in an outpatient clinic of the Kilifi District Hospital, located in a rural area on the coast of Kenya.To estimate the per-patient costs for routine SCD outpatient care at a rural Kenyan hospital.We collected routine administrative and primary cost data from the SCD outpatient clinic and supporting departments at Kilifi District Hospital, Kenya. Costs were estimated by evaluating inputs - equipment, medication, supplies, building use, utility, and personnel - to reflect the cost of offering this service within an existing healthcare facility. Annual economic costs were similarly calculated based on input costs, prorated lifetime of equipment and appropriate discount rate. Sensitivity analyses evaluated these costs under different pay scales and different discount rate.We estimated that the annual economic cost per patient attending the SCD clinic was USD 138 in 2010 with a range of USD 94 to USD 229.This study supplies the first published estimate of the cost of routine outpatient care for children born with SCD in sub-Saharan Africa. Our study provides policy makers with an indication of the potential future costs of maintaining specialist outpatient clinics for children living with SCD in similar contexts.

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