African Climate Policy Center

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

African Climate Policy Center

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
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Habib E.,University of Louisiana at Lafayette | Haile A.T.,University of Louisiana at Lafayette | Haile A.T.,African Climate Policy Center | Tian Y.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Joyce R.J.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Journal of Hydrometeorology | Year: 2012

This study focuses on the evaluation of the NOAA-NCEP Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing technique (CMORPH) satellite-based rainfall product at fine space-time resolutions (1 h and 8 km). The evaluation was conducted during a 28-month period from 2004 to 2006 using a high-quality experimental rain gauge network in southern Louisiana, United States. The dense arrangement of rain gauges allowed for multiple gauges to be located within a single CMORPH pixel and provided a relatively reliable approximation of pixel-average surface rainfall. The results suggest that the CMORPH product has high detection skills: the probability of successful detection is ;80% for surface rain rates >2 mm h-1 and probability of false detection <3%. However, significant and alarming missed-rain and false-rain volumes of 21% and 22%, respectively, were reported. The CMORPH product has a negligible bias when assessed for the entire study period. On an event scale it has significant biases that exceed 100%. The fine-resolution CMORPH estimates have high levels of random errors; however, these errors get reduced rapidly when the estimates are aggregated in time or space. To provide insight into future improvements, the study examines the effect of temporal availability of passive microwave rainfall estimates on the product accuracy. The study also investigates the implications of using a radar-based rainfall product as an evaluation surface reference dataset instead of gauge observations. The findings reported in this study guide future enhancements of rainfall products and increase their informed usage in a variety of research and operational applications. © 2012 American Meteorological Society.

Haile A.T.,University of Louisiana at Lafayette | Haile A.T.,African Climate Policy Center | Habib E.,University of Louisiana at Lafayette | Rientjes T.,University of Twente
Hydrological Processes | Year: 2013

Limited availability of surface-based rainfall observations constrains the evaluation of satellite rainfall products over many regions. Observations are also often not available at time scales to allow evaluation of satellite products at their finest resolutions. In the present study, we utilized a 3-month rainfall data set from an experimental network of eight automatic gauges in Gilgel Abbay watershed in Ethiopia to evaluate the 1-hourly, 8×8-km Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH) rainfall product. The watershed is situated in the Lake Tana basin which is the source of the Blue Nile River. We applied a suite of statistical metrics that included mean difference, bias, standard deviation of differences and measures of association. Our results indicate that the accuracy of the CMORPH product shows a significant variation across the basin area. Its estimates are mostly within ±10mmh-1 of the gauge rainfall observations; however, the product does not satisfactorily capture the rainfall temporal variability and is poorly correlated (<0.27) to gauge observations. Its poor rain detection capability led to significant underestimation of the seasonal rainfall depth (total bias reaches up to -52%) with large amounts of hit rain bias as well as missed rain and false rain biases. In the future refinement of CMORPH algorithm, more attention should be given to reducing missed rain bias over the mountains of Gilgel Abbay, whereas equal attention should be given to hit, missed rain and false rain biases over other parts of the watershed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

Traore S.,African Climate Policy Center | Traore S.,Ministry of Research and Scientifc Innovation | Guven A.,University of Gaziantep
Water Resources Management | Year: 2012

An accurate and simple Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo) numerical model eases to use for supporting irrigation planning and its effective management is highly desired in Sahelian regions. This paper investigates the performance ability of the Gene-expression Programming (GEP) for modeling ETo using decadal climatic data from a Sahelian country; Burkina Faso. For the study; important data are collected from six synoptic meteorological stations located in different regions; Gaoua, Pô, Boromo, Ouahigouya, Bogandé and Dori. The climatic data combinations are used as inputs to develop the GEP models at regional-specific data basis for estimating ETo. GEP performances are evaluated with the root mean square error (RMSE), and coefficient of correlation (R) between estimated and targeted Penman-Monteith FAO56 set as the true reference values. Obviously; from the statistical viewpoint; GEP computing technique has showed a good ability for providing numerical models on a regional data basis. The performances of GEP based on temperatures data are quite good able to substitute empirical equations at regional level to some extent. It is found that the models with wind velocity yield high accuracies by causing radical improve of the performances with R 2 (0.925-0.961) and RMSE (0.131-0.272 mm day -1); while relative humidity may cause only (R 2 = 0.801-0.933 and RMSE = 0.370-0.578 mm day -1). Statistically; GEP is an effectual modeling tool for computing successfully evapotranspiration in Sahel. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Gujba H.,African Climate Policy Center | Thorne S.,SouthSouthNorth SSN Africa | Mulugetta Y.,African Climate Policy Center | Rai K.,GVEP International | Sokona Y.,African Climate Policy Center
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

Modern energy access in Africa is critical to meeting a wide range of developmental challenges including poverty reduction and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Despite having a huge amount and variety of energy resources, modern energy access in the continent is abysmal, especially Sub-Saharan Africa. Only about 31% of the Sub-Saharan African population have access to electricity while traditional biomass energy accounts for over 80% of energy consumption in many Sub-Saharan African countries. With energy use per capita among the lowest in the world, there is no doubt that Africa will need to increase its energy consumption to drive economic growth and human development. Africa also faces a severe threat from global climate change with vulnerabilities in several key areas or sectors in the continent including agriculture, water supply, energy, etc. Low carbon development provides opportunities for African countries to improve and expand access to modern energy services while also building low-emission and climate-resilient economies. However, access to finance from different sources will be critical in achieving these objectives. This paper sets out to explore the financial instruments available for low carbon energy access in Africa including the opportunities, markets and risks in low carbon energy investments in the continent. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Traore S.,African Climate Policy Center | Traore S.,Texas A&M University | Owiyo T.,African Climate Policy Center
International Journal of Global Warming | Year: 2013

Extreme droughts in the northern part of Burkina Faso are locally referred to as tundi, meaning 'dirty weather', because they severely disrupt people's livelihoods in the area. This article investigates the loss and damage from the tundi droughts that occurred in 2004 and 2010 in the Sahel Region. The study conducted field survey among households in ten villages. We found that people's reliance on transhumance has been decreasing over the last decades due to the lack of good pastures, competition over natural resources and corollary conflicts. Whereas transhumance was an effective way to deal with droughts and seasonality, decreased mobility and increased interdependence between cattle and crop production has made people more vulnerable in the event of extreme droughts. Evidences from the survey results show that the vast majority of the respondents experienced negative effects of recent tundi droughts on crops (96%) and livestock (87%). It is also found that such extreme droughts tend to have a cascading impact; they first cause a lack of water affecting seedling and crop yields, which then affects the availability of food for people and feed for livestock. This, in turn, further limits their capacity to cope with future droughts. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Agbemabiese L.,United Environment & Energy, Llc | Nkomo J.,African Climate Policy Center | Sokona Y.,African Climate Policy Center
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

Conventional energy technologies and deployment approaches cannot be relied upon to eliminate energy poverty in Africa. Innovations in energy access are necessary. Previous attempts at introducing and scaling up innovative solutions do not sufficiently address dynamic and structural determinants of success. This limits their actual performance as scalable drivers of innovations in technology, policy and institutions. Using technological innovation systems theory, we demonstrate a practical approach to assess the sustainability of innovations in energy access, and develop a framework to guide energy policy makers, clean energy entrepreneurs and energy-development researchers. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Moufouma-Okia W.,FitzRoy Road | Moufouma-Okia W.,African Climate Policy Center | Jones R.,FitzRoy Road
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2014

This study documents the effect of horizontal resolution on the ability of the Met Office third-generation Global Atmosphere Regional Climate Model (HadGEM3-RA), a regional atmospheric configuration of the HadGEM3 model, to simulate rainfall variability over Africa. It is based on six 20-year long RCM simulations driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis and performed at 12, 25, 50, 70, 90, and 150 km over the CORDEX-Africa domain. To gain further insight into model errors, we also compared the HadGEM3-RA’s performance to that of the parent General Circulation Model using three different spatial resolutions (70, 100, and 150 km), and to HadRM3P—the current Met Office regional climate model. It is found that the 50 km resolution RCM reproduces reasonably the spatial and temporal features of rainfall variability across regions. These include the seasonal progression of the tropical rainbelt, its extent and location, the annual cycle and interannual variability. Although model biases vary across seasons and locations, a prominent feature is the over-prediction of rainfall totals over Central Africa, and underestimation of rainfall in coastal areas of the Guinea Gulf during boreal spring and autumn. HadGEM3-RA improves with increased horizontal resolution, but some model errors persist. Comparison with the parent global model simulations demonstrates generally a realistic and consistent behaviour over large scales—suggesting that the physical formulation is able to capture the key driving processes, but also confirms the benefit of increasing the model horizontal resolution. Despite the model errors, HadGEM3-RA rainfall shows superiority over that from HadRM3P, ERA-Interim and MERRA datasets—indicating that the associated dynamical features of HadGEM3-RA can complement the physical understanding gained from reanalyses. This article also highlights the challenges for evaluating climate models in data sparse regions where satellite derived rainfall and gridded observational datasets often diverge. © 2014, Crown Copyright.

Rientjes T.,University of Twente | Haile A.T.,African Climate Policy Center | Fenta A.A.,Mekelle University
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation | Year: 2012

In this study we aim to assess the diurnal cycle of rainfall across the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin using satellite observations from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Seven years (2002-2008) of Precipitation Radar (PR) and TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) data are used and analyses are based on GIS operations and simple statistical techniques. Observations from PR and TMI reveal that over most parts of the basin area, the rainfall occurrence and conditional mean rain rate are highest between midand late-afternoon (15:00-18:00 LST). Exceptions to this are the south-west and south-eastern parts of the basin area and the Lake Tana basin where midnight and early morning maxima are observed. Along the Blue Nile River gorge the rainfall occurrence and the conditional mean rain rate are highest during the night (20:00-23:00 LST). Orographic effects by large scale variation of topography, elevation and the presence of the UBN river gorge were assessed taking two transects across the basin. Along transects from north to south and from east to west results indicate increased rainfall with increase of elevation whereas areas on the windward side of the high mountain ranges receive higher amount of rainfall than areas on the leeward side. As such, mountain ranges and elevation affect the rainfall distribution resulting in rain shadow effect in the north-eastern parts of Choke-mountain and the ridges in the north-east of the basin. Moreover, a direct relation between rainfall occurrence and elevation is observed specifically for 17:00-18:00 LST. Further, results indicate that the rainfall distribution in the deeply incised and wide river gorge is affected with relatively low rainfall occurrence and low mean rainfall rates in the gorge areas. Seasonal mean rainfall depth is highest in the south-west area and central highlands of the basin while areas in the north, north-east and along the Blue Nile gorge receive the least amount of rainfall. Statistical results of this work show that the diurnal cycle of rainfall occurrence from TRMM estimates show significant correlation with the ground observations at 95% confidence level. In the UBN basin, the PR conditional mean rain rate estimates are closer to the ground observations than the TMI. Analysis on mean wet season rainfall amount indicates that PR generally underestimates and TMI overestimates the ground observed rainfall. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Sokona Y.,African Climate Policy Center | Mulugetta Y.,African Climate Policy Center | Gujba H.,African Climate Policy Center
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

The discussion to widen access to modern energy services has been influential in shaping some of the discussions on energy at the international level. The practice of widening modern energy services access to the poor in Africa is complex, and exacerbated by the dual nature of the energy system across Sub-Saharan Africa where traditional and modern energy systems and practices co-exist. This presents major challenges for policy makers who have to contend with a fragmented energy system, which requires the mobilisation of an array of actors at cross-sectoral levels in order to develop effective institutions and implement innovative policy frameworks. This paper further argues that, the 'energy access' discussion needs to take place in the context of energy transitions, giving due consideration to the productive sector as an important vehicle for change. As the link between energy and development is context specific, each African country needs to chart its own energy transition pathway into the future, and there are ample lessons that they can draw from previous energy transitions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

McCartney M.P.,International Water Management Institute | Menker Girma M.,African Climate Policy Center
Water International | Year: 2012

Ethiopia's policy of large dam construction in the Blue Nile River basin is evaluated by simulating the impact of one downscaled midrange climate change scenario (A1B) on the performance of existing and planned irrigation and hydropower schemes. The simulation finds that by 2100: 1) average basin-wide irrigation demand will increase; 2) annual hydroelectricity generation will be just 60% of potential; and 3) flow at the Ethiopia-Sudan border will be reduced from 1661 m 3/s to 1301 m 3/s as a consequence of climate change in combination with upstream water resource development. Adaptation to climate change and development must be considered together. © Copyright 2012 International Water Resources Association.

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