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Sserumaga J.P.,National Crops Resources Research Institute NaCRRI | Oikeh S.O.,African Agricultural Technology Foundation AATF | Mugo S.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Asea G.,National Crops Resources Research Institute NaCRRI | And 4 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2016

In vivo production of maternal haploid plants and advancement in chromosome doubling technology has led to rapid production of doubled haploid homozygous lines. These in turn have boosted rapid advancement in most breeding programs. This has resulted in production of a large number of maize hybrids which need testing across production environments to select the most suitable hybrids for release and cultivation. The objective of this study was to assess the genotype × environment interactions (GE) for grain yield and other agronomic traits and evaluate the performance of 44 recently developed doubled haploids (DH) testcross hybrids along with six checks across five locations in Uganda. Significant mean squares for environment (E), genotype (G) and GE were observed for all studied traits. Environment explained 46.5 % of the total variance, while G and GE contributed 13.2 and 7.2 %, respectively. Genetic correlations among locations were high (0.999), suggesting little GE among environments. The 10 best testcross hybrids had a 49.2 % average grain yield advantage over the six checks at all locations. DH hybrids CKHDHH0887, CKDHH0878, CKDHH0859, WM1210, CKDHH0858, and WM1214 were the most stable, across locations. The DH testcross hybrids produced higher grain yield and possessed acceptable agronomic traits compared to the commercial hybrids developed earlier. Use of the best DH testcross hybrids, well targeted to the production environments, could boost maize production among farmers. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Toure A.,Africa Rice Center | Rodenburg J.,Africa Rice Center | Saito K.,Africa Rice Center | Oikeh S.,African Agricultural Technology Foundation AATF | And 3 more authors.
Weed Technology | Year: 2011

Weeds are a major constraint to rice production in labor-limited, upland rice-based systems in West Africa. The effects of weeding regimes and rice cultivars on weed growth and rice yield were investigated at two upland locations (Abomey-Calavi and Niaouli) in the degraded coastal savanna zone of Benin in 2005 and 2006 with below-average rainfall. Four weeding regimes (hoe weeding at 21 d after sowing [DAS], delayed hoe weeding at 31 DAS, hoe weeding at 21 and 42 DAS, and a no weeding control) were the main plot treatments. Cultivars comprising three interspecific upland rice cultivars (NERICA 1, NERICA 2, and NERICA 7) and the parents (Oryza sativa WAB56-104 and O. glaberrima CG14) were tested in subplots. The most dominant weed species identified were Jamaican crabgrass, Mariscus, and silver spinach. Rice yield was generally low because of drought stress; none of the experiments had a higher mean yield than 1,400 kg ha -1 across cultivars. Across cultivars, the best weeding regimes in terms of weed control and rice yields were single weeding at 31 DAS (W31) and double weeding at 21 and 42 DAS (W21+42). Under these weeding regimes, WAB56-104 out-yielded the three NERICA cultivars. CG14 showed the strongest weed suppressive ability (WSA) in Abomey-Calavi but did not have strong WSA in Niaouli because of lower biomass accumulation. WSA of WAB56-104 was similar to that of the three NERICA cultivars. Single weeding at 31 DAS, together with the use of cultivars with good adaptation to unfavorable rice growing conditions, would increase land and labor productivity of upland rice-based systems in West Africa. © Weed Science Society of America. Source

Saito K.,Africa Rice Center | Azoma K.,Africa Rice Center | Oikeh S.O.,African Agricultural Technology Foundation AATF
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2010

Intensifying upland rice cultivation has resulted in increased weed pressure and declining soil fertility and rice yield in West Africa. Integrated crop management technologies are needed for enhancing rice productivity. A field experiment was conducted from 2006 to 2008 in a Typic Haplustult soil in southern Benin to identify the optimal seeding date of stylo relay-cropped into upland rice, and to evaluate the effects of fallow treatment and tillage management on rice yield, weed biomass and soil properties. Stylosanthes guianensis (stylo), a legume species, was used as a short-term fallow crop. Rice was grown once each year and stylo was seeded during the wet season and grown until the next rice-growing season. The effects of fallow treatment and tillage management (no-tillage vs. manual-tillage) on weed biomass during the rice-growing season were evaluated in 2007 and 2008, whereas the effects on rice yield were examined in 2007 alone. Results indicated that stylo can be established as a relay crop with upland rice about 10 days after rice seeding. Stylo fallow reduced weed biomass by 71% and 95% and increased total biomass (weed + stylo + litter) by 594% and 107% at the end of the dry seasons in 2007 and 2008, respectively. No-tillage without stylo fallow increased weed biomass by 62-202% over manual-tillage during the rice-growing seasons, whereas stylo fallow reduced weed biomass by 45-83% and 11-36%, respectively, under no-tillage and manual-tillage management. There were no significant effects of fallow treatment and tillage management on soil organic C, total N, inorganic N and extractable P. Rice yields following stylo fallow were 0.7 Mg ha -1 higher than after the natural fallow. Manual-tillage increased rice yield by 0.6 Mg ha -1 over no-tillage. Manual-tillage combined with stylo fallow can be recommended to smallholder farmers for improving upland rice productivity. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Beyene Y.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Semagn K.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Crossa J.,CIMMYT | Mugo S.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | And 11 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2016

In marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS), a subset of molecular markers significantly associated with target traits of interest are used to predict the breeding value of individual plants, followed by rapid recombination and selfing. This study estimated genetic gains in grain yield (GY) using MARS in 10 biparental tropical maize (Zea may L.) populations. In each population, 148 to 184 F2:3 (defined as C0) progenies were derived, crossed with a single-cross tester, and evaluated under water-stressed (WS) and well-watered (WW) environments in sub- Saharan Africa (SSA). The C0 populations were genotyped with 190 to 225 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. A selection index based on marker data and phenotypic data was used for selecting the best C0 families for recombination. Individual plants from selected families were genotyped using 55 to 87 SNPs tagging specific quantitative trait loci (QTL), and the best individuals from each cycle were either intercrossed (to form C1) or selfed (to form C1S1 and C1S2). A genetic gain study was conducted using test crosses of lines from the different cycles F1 and founder parents. Test crosses, along with five commercial hybrid checks were evaluated under four WS and four WW environments. The overall gain for GY using MARS across the 10 populations was 105 kg ha−1 yr−1 under WW and 51 kg ha−1 yr−1 under WS. Across WW environments, GY of C1S2–derived hybrids were 8.7, 5.9, and 16.2% significantly greater than those of C0, founder parents, and commercial checks, respectively. Results demonstrate the potential of MARS for increasing genetic gain under both drought and optimum environments in SSA. © Crop Science Society of America. All rights reserved. Source

Beyene Y.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Semagn K.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Mugo S.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Prasanna B.M.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | And 7 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2016

A marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) program was undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa to improve grain yield under drought-stress in 10 biparental tropical maize populations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the performance of C1S2-derived hybrids obtained after three MARS cycles (one cycle of recombination (C1), followed by two generations of selfing (S2), and to study yield stability under both drought-stress (DS) and well-watered (WW) conditions. For each of the 10 populations, we evaluated hybrids developed by crossing 47–74 C1S2 lines advanced through MARS, the best five S5 lines developed through pedigree selection, and the founder parents with a single-cross tester from a complementary heterotic group. The hybrids and five commercial checks were evaluated in Kenya under 1–3 DS and 3–5 WW conditions with two replications. Combined across DS locations, the top 10 C1S2-derived hybrids from each of the 10 biparental populations produced 0.5–46.3 and 11.1–55.1 % higher mean grain yields than hybrids developed using pedigree selection and the commercial checks, respectively. Across WW locations, the best 10 hybrids derived from C1S2 of each population produced 3.4–13.3 and 7.9–36.5 % higher grain yields than hybrids derived using conventional pedigree breeding and the commercial checks, respectively. Mean days to anthesis of the best 10 C1S2 hybrids were comparable to those of hybrids developed using the pedigree method, the founder parents and the commercial checks, with a maximum difference of 3.5 days among the different groups. However, plant height was significantly (P < 0.01) different in most pairwise comparisons. Our results showed the superiority of MARS over pedigree selection for improving diverse tropical maize populations as sources of improved lines for stress-prone environments and thus MARS can be effectively integrated into mainstream maize breeding programs. © 2015, The Author(s). Source

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