Puebla de Zaragoza, Mexico
Puebla de Zaragoza, Mexico

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Cornejo J.,Dallas World Aquarium | Cornejo J.,Texas A&M University | Cornejo J.,Wildlife Conservation Society | Richardson D.,Dallas World Aquarium | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2014

The horned guan (Oreophasis derbianus) is an endangered species with small and seriously fragmented wild populations. Breeding efforts during the last decade have maintained a slowly increasing captive population with the potential to play an important role in the recovery of the species. Clinical hematology and biochemistries are powerful tools to diagnose and monitor diseases in captive birds. Therefore, establishing hematologic and plasma biochemistry reference values will improve the medical management of this species. This study determines the reference values for 9 hematologic and 15 plasma biochemical variables for 27 male and 12 female, apparently healthy, captive horned guans from three institutions. Differences related to age, sex, and husbandry were identified but were usually small and clinically insignificant. These results should improve veterinary care of captive individuals of this species and provide comparative data for other species of cracids. © American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Juan-Salles C.,Africam Safari | Martinez L.S.,C.P. 72007 Puebla | Rosas-Rosas A.G.,Africam Safari | Rosas-Rosas A.G.,Wildlife Conservation Society | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2015

Subacute and chronic mountain sickness of humans and the related brisket disease of cattle are characterized by right-sided congestive heart failure in individuals living at high altitudes as a result of sustained hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Adaptations to high altitude and disease resistance vary among species, breeds, and individuals. The authors conducted a retrospective survey of right-sided cardiac hypertrophy associated with pulmonary arterial hypertrophy or arteriosclerosis in zoo mammals housed at Africam Safari (Puebla, México), which is located at 2,100 m above sea level. Seventeen animals with detailed pathology records matched the study criterion. Included were 10 maras (Dolichotis patagonum), 2 cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), 2 capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), and 1 case each of Bennet's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus), and scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah). All had right-sided cardiac hypertrophy and a variety of arterial lesions restricted to the pulmonary circulation and causing arterial thickening with narrowing of the arterial lumen. Arterial lesions most often consisted of medial hypertrophy or hyperplasia of small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries. All maras also had single or multiple elevated plaques in the pulmonary arterial trunk consisting of fibrosis, accompanied by chondroid metaplasia in some cases. Both antelopes were juvenile and died with right-sided congestive heart failure associated with severe pulmonary arterial lesions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of cardiac and pulmonary arterial disease in zoo mammals housed at high altitudes. © Copyright 2015 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Yanga S.,California State University, Sacramento | Martinez-Gomez J.E.,Institute Ecologia | Sehgal R.N.M.,San Francisco State University | Escalante P.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 2 more authors.
Pacific Conservation Biology | Year: 2011

To assess the potential disease risks posed by resident Columbiformes to the reintroduction of the Socorro Dove Zenaida graysoni to Socorro Island, Mexico, the endemic Socorro Ground Dove Columbina passerina socorrensis and the recently arrived Mourning Dove Zenaida macroura, were screened for ecto- and endoparsites, haemosporidia, Trichomonas gallinae, Chlamydophila psittaci and avian pox. All of the Mourning Doves and Socorro Ground Doves sampled appeared healthy upon capture. We detected Haemoproteus spp. in 88% of Mourning Dove and 30% of Socorro Ground Dove samples using microscopy. Two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA amplification methods detected either Haemoproteus spp. or Plasmodium spp. Pooling results from both tests yielded positives in 100% of the Mourning Doves and 52% of the Socorro Ground Doves. A nested PCR detected Leucocytozoon spp. in 94% of the Mourning Doves and 61% of the Socorro Ground Doves sampled. Thus, at least two genera of haemosporidia are present in columbids of Socorro Island. Microscopy for T. gallinae yielded positives in 33% of Mourning Dove and 30% of Socorro Ground Dove samples. C. psittaci was not detected using PCR on either cloacal swab samples or tissue samples from tested Mourning Doves or Socorro Ground Doves. Necropsies revealed neither lesions indicative of the wet form of avian pox, nor internal lesions associated with trichomoniasis. These results suggest that Socorro Doves selected for reintroduction should be screened carefully to evaluate potential immunological challenges by native haemosporidians and to avoid introduction of other diseases apparently absent from native Columbiformes on Socorro Island.


Michaels C.J.,Zoological Society of London | Diaz J.A.H.,Africam Safari | Mucino M.C.C.,Africam Safari | Munoz-Garcia C.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | And 4 more authors.
Herpetology Notes | Year: 2016

Ambystoma taylori is a micro-endemic salamander found only in the hyposaline lake Alchichica in Puebla, Mexico. It is listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN and its habitat is threatened by water extraction, pollution and development. However, little is known abut the salamander and its biology. We surveyed the lake for salamanders as part of a two year project funded by the Zoological Society of London's Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered (EDGE) programme. During nocturnal visual encounter surveys, we captured two emaciated salamanders that were unable to feed and died within 12 hours of capture. Post mortem examinations revealed absence of fat bodies, plethoric gall bladders and abnormal livers, indicative of starvation. The stomach and upper intenstine was densely packed with the namatode Hedruris siredonis, which in all likelihood led to death through inanition. A third animal was found dead in the lake, with ventral dermatitis but in more normal body condition. Post mortem examination revealed hyperaemic gastric and intestinal mucosa and a heavy nematode burden, blocking the alimentary canal. This is the first report of fatal parasitosis in this species and may be indicative of growing environmental pressures on the species. © 2016, Societas Europaea Herpetologica. All rights reserved.


Villegas-Amtmann S.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Atkinson S.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Paras-Garcia A.,Africam Safari | Costa D.P.,University of California at Santa Cruz
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A Molecular and Integrative Physiology | Year: 2012

Survival depends on an animal's ability to find and acquire prey. In diving vertebrates, this ability is directly related to their physiological capability (e.g. oxygen stores). We studied the seasonal variation in oxygen stores, body temperature and body condition in California sea lions (. Zalophus californianus) (CSL) as a function of seasonal variation in temperature, primary productivity, diving behavior and reproductive stage. During summer, blood oxygen stores were significantly greater and muscle oxygen stores were significantly lower than in winter. Total oxygen stores, body condition and body temperature did not change between seasons but variations in body temperature were greater during summer. Changes in oxygen stores are partly attributed to diving behavior, temperature and pregnancy that could increase oxygen consumption. Blood and muscle oxygen stores appear to be influenced by reproductive state. Blood oxygen stores are more likely influenced by diving behavior and temperature than muscle oxygen stores. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

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