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Padova, Italy

Somigliana E.,Africa CUAMM | Somigliana E.,Infertility Unit | Vigano P.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Benaglia L.,Infertility Unit | And 6 more authors.
Gynecological Endocrinology

Women in Western nations are exposed to an "unnatural" high number of menstrual cycles and this has been claimed to favour the development of endometriosis. If so, the prevalence of the disease should be low in remote rural settings characterized by high fertility rate, frequent teen-age pregnancy and protracted breast-feeding. To verify this hypothesis, we investigated the prevalence of endometriosis among women referring to the District Hospital of Aber, Northern Uganda for gynecological complaints. Subjects were considered affected if they had a history of surgery for endometriosis or if they had a positive clinical or ultrasound examination. Overall, a total of 528 gynecological consultancies were performed during the one year study period. Endometriosis was recorded in only one case. The frequency of the disease in the whole cohort of referred cases was thus 0.2% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.01-0.9%). When focusing on non-pregnant women in their reproductive age, it was 0.3% (95% CI: 0.01-1.3%). When considering women complaining symptoms suggestive for endometriosis, it was 0.4% (95% CI: 0.02-1.9%). In conclusion, endometriosis is rare in a community characterized by high fertility rate, frequent teen-age pregnancy and protracted breast-feeding, supporting the idea that the reproductive pattern plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the disease. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Straneo M.,Africa CUAMM | Fogliati P.,Africa CUAMM | Pellis I.,Africa CUAMM | Goodman C.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 4 more authors.
African Health Sciences

Background: Strategies to tackle maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa include expanding coverage of reproductive services. Even where high, more vulnerable women may not access services. No data is available on high coverage determinants. We investigated this in Tanzania in a predicted high utilization area. Methods: Data was collected through a household survey of 464 women with a recent delivery. Primary outcomes were facility delivery and ≥4 ANC visits. Determinants were analysed using multivariate regression. Results: Almost all women had attended ANC, though only 58.3% had ≥4 visits. ≥4 visits were more likely in the youngest age group (OR 2.7 95% CI 1.32-5.49, p=0.008), and in early ANC attenders (OR 3.2 95% CI 2.04-4.90, p<0.001). Facility delivery was greater than expected (87.7%), more likely in more educated women (OR 2.7 95% CI 1.50-4.75, p=0.002), in those within 5 kilometers of a facility (OR 3.2 95% CI 1.59-6.48, p=0.002), and for early ANC attenders (OR 2.4 95% CI 1.20-4.91, p=0.02). Conclusion: Rural contexts can achieve high facility delivery coverage. Based on our findings, strategies to reach women yet unserved should include promotion of early ANC start particularly for the less educated, and improvement of distant communities’ access to facilities. © 2016, Makerere University, Medical School. All rights reserved. Source

Fogliati P.,Africa CUAMM | Straneo M.,Africa CUAMM | Brogi C.,University of Siena | Fantozzi P.L.,University of Siena | And 5 more authors.

Introduction Maternal and perinatal mortality remain a challenge in resource-limited countries, particularly among the rural poor. To save lives at birth health facility delivery is recommended. However, increasing coverage of institutional deliveries may not translate into mortality reduction if shortage of qualified staff and lack of enabling working conditions affect quality of services. In Tanzania childbirth care is available in all facilities; yet maternal and newborn mortality are high. The study aimed to assess in a high facility density rural context whether a health system organization with fewer delivery sites is feasible in terms of population access. Methods Data on health facilities' location, staffing and delivery caseload were examined in Ludewa and Iringa Districts, Southern Tanzania. Geospatial raster and network analysis were performed to estimate access to obstetric services in walking time. The present geographical accessibility was compared to a theoretical scenario with a 40% reduction of delivery sites. Results About half of first-line health facilities had insufficient staff to offer full-time obstetric services (45.7% in Iringa and 78.8% in Ludewa District). Yearly delivery caseload at first-line health facilities was low, with less than 100 deliveries in 48/70 and 43/52 facilities in Iringa and Ludewa District respectively. Wide geographical overlaps of facility catchment areas were observed. In Iringa 54% of the population was within 1-hour walking distance from the nearest facility and 87.8% within 2 hours, in Ludewa, the percentages were 39.9% and 82.3%. With a 40% reduction of delivery sites, approximately 80% of population will still be within 2 hours' walking time. Conclusions Our findings from spatial modelling in a high facility density context indicate that reducing delivery sites by 40% will decrease population access within 2 hours by 7%. Focused efforts on fewer delivery sites might assist strengthening delivery services in resource-limited settings. © 2015 Fogliati et al. Source

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