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Pune, India

Dash N.,Command Hospital Science | Kushwaha A.S.,AFMC
Medical Journal Armed Forces India

BACKGROUND Stress fracture (SF) is the single most common cause for the lost number of manpower days during training of recruits in the Armed Forces. This prospective study was undertaken with a view to develop baseline data on incidence of SF and to identify related variables. METHOD A prospective study over a period of five years during 2004-2009 in which a total of 8,570 recruits were enrolled at the start of their training to find out the incidence and pattern of SFs. RESULTS A total of 604 (7.04%, 95% CI 6.40-7.40%) out of a total of 8,570 recruits sustained SF during the study period. The majority of fractures occurred during basic training. The factors like urban residence, vegetarianism and those without prior history of physical activity were found to be associated with SF. Tibia was the commonest bone involved. CONCLUSION Prevention is undoubtedly the best approach in SF and other sports injuries. Priority should be given to individuals with good sports and physical activity background during recruitment. Intensity of training should be gradually increased during first three months (12 weeks) of training. © 2012, AFMS. Source

Kinra P.,Pathology | Dutta V.,AFMC
Tropical Biomedicine

Complicated Plasmodium falciparum infection is associated with a 6.4% mortality rate in India, yet its prognostication is incompletely understood. The conventional prognostic markers of falciparum malaria include clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters. However these factors are non-specific. Hence there is a need of an accurate inexpensive objective marker for prognosticating falciparum malaria infection outcomes. Angiopoietins, angiogenic factors, eotaxins, adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines have been studied for prognostication of this common disease. Determination of the first four is technically difficult and requires a high level of expertise and equipment. Intermediary cytokines have the most promising role. This study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the serum level of TNF-α in patients with P. falciparum malaria and carry out statistical analysis of levels of serum TNF-α with parasite index, age, severity of anaemia, hypoglycaemia, hepatic and renal dysfunction. In our study the average TNF alpha level in 91healthy controls was 46.42 pg/ml whereas that in mild falciparum malaria was 100.45 pg/ml, in severe malaria - 278.63 pg/ml and in cerebral malaria it was 532.6 pg/ml. The mean TNF alpha level was significantly different in severe malaria and cerebral malaria compared to that in healthy controls (p < 0.02). The difference in levels of TNF alpha was significantly higher in falciparum malaria patients with anaemia, altered liver functions, hyperparasitemia, leucocytosis, hepatosplenomegaly and hypoglycaemia. The TNF levels did not correlate well with haemolysis markers and patients with altered renal function. Hence a raised TNF alpha can predict the likelihood of oncoming anaemia, hypoglycaemia, altered hepatic function and leucocytosis but not the grades of malaria. The duration of stay in hospital and change in parasite index between the 5th day and the 1st day of admission was used a clinical outcome marker in this study. The analysis showed that serum TNF alpha was raised significantly (p= 0.001) in patients with longer duration stay in hospital. The cytokine was significantly raised in patients having disorientation /cognitive disorder /coma and ARDS (p= 0.001, 0.0023 respectively). The study concluded that serum TNF alpha if done at time of admission and on day 3 can indicate the severity of disease and its complications. Source

Chaudhari C.N.,AFMC
Medical Journal Armed Forces India

Background: Thalassaemia major patients require lifelong transfusion support due to which they are prone for alloimmunization to foreign RBCs. Alloimmunization can be prevented by extended phenotype match blood transfusion. The study was conducted to know the extent of problem of alloimmunization and to find important red cell antibodies in thalassaemia patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 32 thalassaemia patients were enrolled. The specimen was subjected to red cell alloantibody and autoantibody by columo gel agglutination technique. R 1 wR 1,R 2R 2, rr (papaine and non papain) and 11 cell panel reagent cells were used in screening and identification of alloantibodies respectively. Result: Six (18.8%) subjects were alloimmunized. All alloimmunized subjects were recipient of more than 20 units of transfusion. Total seven clinically significant alloantibodies were identified. Anti E and anti c were commonest antibodies in four (12.5%) patients. Conclusion: Red cell alloimmunization is an important risk in thalassaemia patient. 71.4 % of alloantibodies were anti E and anti c type. Extended phenotype match blood transfusion for Rh-c and Rh-E antigens or level 2 antigen matching stringency needs to be explored in preventing alloimmunization in thalassaemia patients. Source

Sahoo N.K.,AFMC | Mohan R.,15 Corps Dental Unit
Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery

Intermaxillary fixation (IMF) is conventionally used for treatment of fractures involving maxillomandibular complex both for closed reduction and as an adjuvant to open reduction. To overcome the cumbersome procedure of tooth borne appliances cortical bone screws were introduced in the year of 1989 to achieve IMF which is essentially a bone borne appliance. In our institution we treated 45 cases of mandibular fracture both single and multiple fractures by open reduction over a period of 24 months. IMF screws were used to achieve dental occlusion in all the cases. Various advantages, disadvantages and complications are discussed. In our institutional experience we found that the IMF screws are an ideal device for temporary intermaxillary fixation for the cases having only mandibular fracture. © 2010 Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons of India. Source

Hassan K.M.,Command Hospital | Sahni H.,AIR INDIA | Jha A.,AFMC
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology

Background: Hirayama disease (HD) is benign focal amyotrophy of the distal upper limbs, often misdiagnosed as motor neuron disease. Routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often reported normal. Objective: To study the clinicoradiological profile of hand wasting in young males. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with insidious-onset hand wasting from March 2008 to May 2011 were evaluated electrophysiologically. Cervical MRI in neutral position was done in 11 patients and flexion contrast imaging was done in 10 patients. Results: All patients were males less than 25 years of age, with median age 23 years, except one patient who was 50 years old. Duration of illness was 3 months to 3 years. All (100%) had oblique amyotrophy, four (36%) cold paresis, 10 (91%) minipolymyoclonus and three (27%) had fasciculations. Regional reflexes were variably absent. Two patients (18%) had brisk reflexes of lower limbs with flexor plantars. Electromyography (EMG) showed chronic denervation in the C7-T1 myotomes. Neutral position MRI showed loss of cervical lordosis in 10/11 (91%), localized lower cervical cord atrophy in 9/11 (82%), asymmetric cord flattening in 11/11 (100%) and intramedullary hyperintensity in 2/11 (18%); flexion study showed loss of dural attachment, anterior displacement of dorsal dura, epidural flow voids in 9/10 (90%) and enhancing epidural crescent in 10/10 (100%). Clinical profile, imaging and electrophysiological findings of the patient aged 50 years will be described in detail as presentation at this age is exceptional. Collar therapy slowed progression in most cases. Conclusion: Clinical features of HD corroborated well with electrophysiological diagnosis of anterior horn cell disease of lower cervical cord. While dynamic contrast MRI is characteristic, routine studies have a high predictive value for diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis is important to institute early collar therapy. Source

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