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Agranovich D.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Ishai P.B.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Ishai P.B.,Ariel University | Katz G.,Afimilk Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2017

The role of water in bovine milk is more complicated than that of a background solvent. To understand the interaction between water and the constituents of milk, an extensive dielectric study of the γ-dispersion of raw bovine milk was carried out over the frequency range 0.1–50 GHz and the interval of temperatures (10 °C–42 °C). Samples were provided by utilizing an extended donor pool. The results reveal that the temperature dependence of the characteristic relaxation times is described by the Arrhenius law. Furthermore, it conforms to a Meyer-Neldel compensation, whereby the pre-factor of the relaxation times is dependent on the activation energy. This entropy/enthalpy compensation is traced to the interaction between bulk water dynamic clusters and other milk constituents. A statistical correlation between the Somatic Cell Count, a traditional measure of milk quality, and the relaxation times is provided as well, opening new vistas for the industrial classification of milk. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Dublin, May 10, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Worldwide Automatic Milking Market [by Systems (Milking, Robots, Cooling, Transportation), Equipment, Parlors (Parallel, Rotary, Herringbone, Tandem), Services); by Herd Size; Regions]: Market Size, Forecasts, Insights and Opportunities (2016-2021)" report to their offering. Worldwide Automatic Milking Market to Exceed $6 Billion in 2021 The report on the Automatic milking market provides an in-depth analysis of the market size, forecasts and opportunities automated systems that cater to the dairy farm ecosystem. The report covers the market size and forecasts of dairy farm systems, categorized by types - Milking Systems, Measurement Systems, Management Systems, Cooling Systems, Transportation Systems and Others. Market opportunities for these systems are provided across different categories of herd sizes - Less than 100, 100 - 1000 and More than 1000. Further to this, the report also provides the market data for systems across five regions - North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Central America and Latin America (CALA), and Middle-East and Africa (MEA). The Automatic Milking market report also includes insights into key market requirements gathered from farmers, farm owners, and buyers. The report also provides their preferences, priorities and perception of systems, equipment, parlors and services for automatic milking. The study also covers key demand side ratings such as ratings across regions for systems, parlors, service types, and deployment timeframes of automatic milking systems and solutions. Some Questions answered in the Report - What is the Automatic Milking market size and forecast in 2016? - What is the market size and forecasts for automatic milking systems in the next 5 years? - What is the milking parlor market size across the five regions? - What is the cooling and transportation systems market size and forecasts for 2016-2021? - What is the market opportunity for automatic milking systems across different sizes of herds? - What are the companies in the automatic milking market and how are they positioned? Market Segmentation The Automatic milking market covers three key categories: - Segments - Herd Size - Regions The Automatic milking market is further segmented by 4 segments: - Systems - Equipment - Parlors - Services The Automatic Milking Systems market is also segmented by 6 Systems: - Milking Systems - Measurement Systems - Management Systems - Cooling Systems - Transportation Systems - Other Automation Systems The Automatic milking market is also segmented by Herd Size: - Less than 100 - 100 - 1000 - More than 1000 Companies mentioned in the report - Acram S.r.l. - Afimilk - Allflex - Bartec Benke GmbH - Bob-White Systems - BouMatic - Dairymaster - DeLaval - Fabdec - Fullwood - GEA - Lely - Milkwell - Paul Mueller Company - Read Industrial Ltd. - Ro-KA Industri A/S - Rotec Engineering B.V. - SAC - Stellapps Technologies - Waikato Milking Systems For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/bsg9cv/worldwide


Dublin, May 10, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Worldwide Automatic Milking Market [by Systems (Milking, Robots, Cooling, Transportation), Equipment, Parlors (Parallel, Rotary, Herringbone, Tandem), Services); by Herd Size; Regions]: Market Size, Forecasts, Insights and Opportunities (2016-2021)" report to their offering. Worldwide Automatic Milking Market to Exceed $6 Billion in 2021 The report on the Automatic milking market provides an in-depth analysis of the market size, forecasts and opportunities automated systems that cater to the dairy farm ecosystem. The report covers the market size and forecasts of dairy farm systems, categorized by types - Milking Systems, Measurement Systems, Management Systems, Cooling Systems, Transportation Systems and Others. Market opportunities for these systems are provided across different categories of herd sizes - Less than 100, 100 - 1000 and More than 1000. Further to this, the report also provides the market data for systems across five regions - North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Central America and Latin America (CALA), and Middle-East and Africa (MEA). The Automatic Milking market report also includes insights into key market requirements gathered from farmers, farm owners, and buyers. The report also provides their preferences, priorities and perception of systems, equipment, parlors and services for automatic milking. The study also covers key demand side ratings such as ratings across regions for systems, parlors, service types, and deployment timeframes of automatic milking systems and solutions. Some Questions answered in the Report - What is the Automatic Milking market size and forecast in 2016? - What is the market size and forecasts for automatic milking systems in the next 5 years? - What is the milking parlor market size across the five regions? - What is the cooling and transportation systems market size and forecasts for 2016-2021? - What is the market opportunity for automatic milking systems across different sizes of herds? - What are the companies in the automatic milking market and how are they positioned? Market Segmentation The Automatic milking market covers three key categories: - Segments - Herd Size - Regions The Automatic milking market is further segmented by 4 segments: - Systems - Equipment - Parlors - Services The Automatic Milking Systems market is also segmented by 6 Systems: - Milking Systems - Measurement Systems - Management Systems - Cooling Systems - Transportation Systems - Other Automation Systems The Automatic milking market is also segmented by Herd Size: - Less than 100 - 100 - 1000 - More than 1000 Companies mentioned in the report - Acram S.r.l. - Afimilk - Allflex - Bartec Benke GmbH - Bob-White Systems - BouMatic - Dairymaster - DeLaval - Fabdec - Fullwood - GEA - Lely - Milkwell - Paul Mueller Company - Read Industrial Ltd. - Ro-KA Industri A/S - Rotec Engineering B.V. - SAC - Stellapps Technologies - Waikato Milking Systems For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/bsg9cv/worldwide


Leitner G.,Kimron Veterinary Institute | Merin U.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Jacoby S.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Bezman D.,Afimilk Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2013

Real-time analysis of milk coagulation properties as performed by the AfiLab™ milk spectrometer introduces new opportunities for the dairy industry. The study evaluated the performance of the AfiLab™ in a milking parlor of a commercial farm to provide real-time analysis of milk-clotting parameters-Afi-CF for cheese manufacture and determine its repeatability in time for individual cows. The AfiLab™ in a parlor, equipped with two parallel milk lines, enables to divert the milk on-line into two bulk milk tanks (A and B). Three commercial dairy herds of 220 to 320 Israeli Holstein cows producing ∼11 500 l during 305 days were selected for the study. The Afi-CF repeatability during time was found significant (P < 0.001) for cows. The statistic model succeeded in explaining 83.5% of the variance between Afi-CF and cows, and no significant variance was found between the mean weekly repeated recordings. Days in milk and log somatic cell count (SCC) had no significant effect. Fat, protein and lactose significantly affected Afi-CF and the empirical van Slyke equation. Real-time simulations were performed for different cutoff levels of coagulation properties where the milk of high Afi-CF cutoff value was channeled to tank A and the lower into tank B. The simulations showed that milk coagulation properties of an individual cow are not uniform, as most cows contributed milk to both tanks. Proportions of the individual cow's milk in each tank depended on the selected Afi-CF cutoff. The assessment of the major causative factors of a cow producing low-quality milk for cheese production was evaluated for the group that produced the low 10% quality milk. The largest number of cows in those groups at the three farms was found to be cows with post-intramammary infection with Escherichia coli and subclinical infections with streptococci or coagulase-negative staphylococci (∼30%), although the SCC of these cows was not significantly different. Early time in lactation together with high milk yield >50 l/day, and late in lactation together with low milk yield<15 l/day and estrous (0 to 5 days) were also important influencing factors for low-quality milk. However, ∼50% of the tested variables did not explain any of the factors responsible for the cow producing milk in the low-10% Afi-CF. © 2013 The Animal Consortium.


Bezman D.,Afimilk Inc. | Lemberskiy-Kuzin L.,Afimilk Inc. | Katz G.,Afimilk Inc. | Merin U.,Afimilk Inc. | Leitner G.,Kimron Veterinary Institute
Journal of Dairy Research | Year: 2015

Intramammary infection (IMI), comprises a group of costly diseases affecting dairy animals worldwide. Many dairy parlours are equipped with on-line computerised data acquisition systems designed to detect IMI. However, the data collected is related to the cow level, therefore the contribution of infected glands to the recorded parameters may be over estimated. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of single gland IMI by different bacteria specieson the cow's overall milk quality. A total of 130 cows were tested 239 times; 79 cows were tested once and the others were examined 2-8 times. All of the analysed data refer to the number of tests performed, taking into account the repeated testing of the same cows. Of the cows tested ~50% were free of infection in all 4 glands and the others were infected in one gland with different coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae, or were post infected with Escherichia coli (PIEc), i.e., free of bacterial infection at the time of sampling but 1-2 months after clinical infection by E. Coli. Overall, infection with bacteria had significant effects on somatic cell count (SCC) and lactose concentration. Examining each bacterium reveals that the major influence on those parameters was the sharp decrease in lactose in the PIEc and curd firmness in PIEc and Strep. Individual gland milk production decreased ~20% in Strep. dysgalactiae-and ~50% in PIEc-infected glands with respect to glands with no bacterial findings. Significant differences were found in lactose, SCC, rennet clotting time and curd firmness in the milk of infected glands and among those, these parameters were significantly higher in Strep. dysgalactiae and PIEc than in CNS infected cows. The current results using quarter-milking reinforces the importance of accurate IMI detection in relation to economic and welfare factors, and moreover, emphasises the need for technical sensing and constant reporting to the farmer about changes in the milk quality of every animal. © 2015 Proprietors of Journal of Dairy Research.


Agranovich D.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Renhart I.,Microradar Co. | Ben Ishai P.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Katz G.,Afimilk Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2016

The use of a moisture sensor, based on microwave absorption at 40 GHz, is explored for the direct determination of the water content in milk. The operating principle of the device is based on the relative decrement of a transmitted signal through the sample. The results of the study are based on the measurements of over 150 samples of milk, taken from individual cows, from bulk tank milk and from skimmed milk sources. A high correlation is revealed between the signal absorption, measured by the sensor, and the nominal main solids content in bovine milk, determined independently. In addition, the fat concentrations in raw milk, considered separately from the other constituents, were also well correlated to the microwave moisture meter readings. As the other solid fractions of milk show less or non-significant correlation to the absorption coefficient, it is concluded that the correlation of fat to signal decrement is due to an excluded volume effect. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Agranovich D.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Ben Ishai P.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Katz G.,Afimilk Inc. | Bezman D.,Afimilk Inc. | Feldman Y.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2016

Bovine milk is a complex colloidal liquid exhibiting a multi-scaled structure. It is of particular importance, both commercially and scientifically, to investigate both its dynamic and structural properties. In the current study we have employed the broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) technique in the frequency range of 10-1-106 Hz and the temperature range of 176-230 K in order to examine the molecular structure and dynamics of quenched bovine milk. Four dielectric relaxation processes were identified. Three of them are associated with water in its different forms: water-lactose complexes, bulk hexagonal and cubic ices. The fourth process is attributed to domain wall relaxations linked to the presence of micro-cracks in the ice structures. In addition, the first process, attributed to water-lactose complexes, obeys the Meyer-Neldel compensation law and can be taken as evidence of differing interfaces of these complexes with the bulk water of the milk, mediated by the lactose concentration. Furthermore, an intriguing structural-dynamic transition around 200 K was observed. Considering the mentioned above, we conclude that our results emphasize the structural and dynamical significance of water in bovine milk. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Afimilk Inc.
Type: | Journal: Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces | Year: 2016

Bovine milk is a complex colloidal liquid exhibiting a multi-scaled structure. It is of particular importance, both commercially and scientifically, to investigate both its dynamic and structural properties. In the current study we have employed the broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) technique in the frequency range of 10(-1)-10(6)Hz and the temperature range of 176-230 K in order to examine the molecular structure and dynamics of quenched bovine milk. Four dielectric relaxation processes were identified. Three of them are associated with water in its different forms: water-lactose complexes, bulk hexagonal and cubic ices. The fourth process is attributed to domain wall relaxations linked to the presence of micro-cracks in the ice structures. In addition, the first process, attributed to water-lactose complexes, obeys the Meyer-Neldel compensation law and can be taken as evidence of differing interfaces of these complexes with the bulk water of the milk, mediated by the lactose concentration. Furthermore, an intriguing structural-dynamic transition around 200K was observed. Considering the mentioned above, we conclude that our results emphasize the structural and dynamical significance of water in bovine milk.


Schcolnik T.,Afimilk Inc. | Ishay E.,Afimilk Inc. | Honig H.,Volkani Agricultural Research Center
Precision Livestock Farming 2015 - Papers Presented at the 7th European Conference on Precision Livestock Farming, ECPLF 2015 | Year: 2015

The extreme metabolic adaptations of dairy cows after calving are associated with a negative energy balance (NEB). NEB increases the likelihood of disease incidence, which in turn adversely affects productivity and reproductive performance. This study was conducted to look for an optimal timing to measure beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), i.e. ketones, in blood and to compare inline automatic measurements of milk components with a test for blood ketone concentrations. Blood BHBA of the same 18 cows was measured three times throughout one day (06:00, 13:00 & 20:00). Cows with BHBA above 1.4mmol/L were considered ketotic. In the morning 2 cows (11%) were found to be ketotic, at noon 5 cows (28%) and in the evening 6 ketotic cows (33%) were identified. In total 7 cows out of the 18 tested were found to be ketotic on that day by BHBA, in at least one of the three sessions. No single measurement session identified all seven ketotic cows together. Looking at the fat to protein ratio (FPR), we found that 6 of the 7 cows (86%) were ketotic by BHBA. In another study we tested 4 cows, identified by FPR, every two hours. Differences in blood ketone levels were detected in the course of the day. Based on these results we conclude that a single daily, direct ketone body measurement is less effective at preventing ketosis. Continuous automatic monitoring makes farmers aware of invisible (sub clinical) metabolic issues and enables them to react effectively. Automatic monitoring therefore improves animal productivity, health and wellbeing.


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