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Fan Q.,Guangxi Medical University | Zhan X.,Guangxi Medical University | Li X.,Guangxi Medical University | Zhao J.,Guangxi Medical University | Chen Y.,Affiliated Rui Kang Hospital of Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical School
Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science | Year: 2015

Apoptosis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) has been shown to contribute to the development of osteoporosis, which is often the result of long-term use of glucocorticoid drugs such as dexamethasone (Dex). However, it remains unknown whether Dex induces apoptosis of BM-MSCs, and whether a chemical agent like vanadate can block such effects. To investigate these two issues, we isolated BM-MSCs from SD rats and treated the cells with different doses of Dex. We found that Dex induced apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manners. Pretreating BM-MSCs with vanadate prevented Dex-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that expression of caspases (3, 8, and 9) increased in Dextreated BM-MSC and was attenuated by vanadate pretreatment. These results not only demonstrate the role of vanadate in the inhibition of Dex-induced apoptosis of BM-MSCs, but also reveal the therapeutic potential of vanadate in glucocorticoid-mediated osteoporosis. © 2015 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc. Source


Chen Y.,Southern Medical University | Chen L.,Affiliated Rui Kang Hospital of Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical School | Yin Q.,General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command | Gao H.,Affiliated Rui Kang Hospital of Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical School | And 3 more authors.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Background/Aims: We have reported in a separate study that alcohol exposure triggers activation of the TNF-α signaling pathway leading to an adverse shift of multipotential mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow (BMSCs) away from osteogenesis towards adipogenesis. However, inhibition of TNF-α signaling only yielded moderate inhibition of adipogenesis. Here we showed that in addition to promoting the TNF-α signaling, alcohol also suppressed the Wnt1/β-catenin signaling pathway. Methods: We treated primary BMSCs from human subjects with alcohol for 24 days. We measured changes of genes related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, adipogenic markers and osteogenic markers using quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. We performed Alizarin red staining for osteogenesis. We also conducted assays for osteogenic biomarkers alkaline phosphatase, collagen-I and osteocalcin. Results: Wnt/β-catenin signaling was markedly activated in BMSCs treated with osteogenic inducers relative to the control cells, as indicated by the increased levels of nuclear β-catenin along with reduced levels of cytosolic β-catenin, as well as increased protein levels of Wnt1. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling was significantly suppressed in BMSCs exposed to alcohol, which was reflected by downregulated expression of osteogenic marker genes Osf2/Cbfa1, osteopontin and osteocalcin, upregulated adipogenic marker PPARγ2 and aP2, and reduced number of calcifcation nodules. In contrast, activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by BIO favored osteogenesis even in the presence of alcohol. Simultaneous activation of Wnt1 by BIO and inhibition of TNF-α by 3,6'-dithiothalidomide produced synergetic suppression of ethanol-induced adipogenic lineage compared to interference with either of them alone. Conclusion: This remarkable shift of BMSCs towards osteoblast lineage suggests the superiority of concordant and reciprocal interferences of the TNF-α and Wnt/β-catenin pathways for promoting osteogenesis. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Chen Y.,Southern Medical University | Gao H.,Affiliated Rui Kang Hospital of Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical School | Yin Q.,General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command | Chen L.,Affiliated Rui Kang Hospital of Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical School | And 3 more authors.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Background/Aims: Studies have provided substantial evidence that osteoblasts and adipocytes share common progenitormultipotential mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow (BMSCs), and excessive alcohol consumption shifts away from osteogenic to adipogenic lineage. However, how exactly alcohol impairs osteogenesis is still incompletely understood. This study was designed to shed light on this issue. Methods: We treated primary BMSCs from human subjects with alcohol for 24 days. We measured changes of genes related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, adipogenic markers and osteogenic markers using quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. We performed Oil red O staining and quantification of adipogenesis. We also conducted caspase 3 activity assay to assess BMSC apoptosis. Results: We showed here that chronic exposure of BMSCs to alcohol induced adipogenesis and disrupted osteogenesis as indicated by upregulation of adipogenic markers (PPARγ2 and aP2), downregulation of osteogenic markers (Osf2/Cbfa1), and accumulation of lipid droplets. Alcohol induced ER stress, as reflected by increased expression of glucose-regulated proteins GRP78 and GRP94, and by increased expression of transcription factors activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and enhanced caspase 3 activity. Additionally, ER stress also upregulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Simultaneous silencing of ATF4 and CHOP prevented upregulation of TNF-α. Knockdown of either ATF4 and CHOP or TNF-α by their siRNAs was able to reverse the ethanol-induced adipogenesis. Conclusion: Our data therefore revealed a role of ER stress and ATF4/CHOP in the ethanol-induced inhibition of osteogenesis, and activation of TNF-α signaling by ATF4/CHOP linking ER stress to adipogenic lineage in response to alcohol stimulation. This work should establish a new signaling pathway linking alcohol, ER stress, and TNF-α to loss of bone formation: Ethanol → ER stress → ATF4 & CHOP → TNF-α → Osteoblasts↓↓↓. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

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