PubMed | Xinxiang Medical University, Zhengzhou University, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Affiliated Hospital to Academy of Military Medical Science 307 Hospital and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oncotarget | Year: 2016
To systematically evaluate the overall efficacy and safety of current anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies for treatment of patients with advanced or refractory cancer.Fifty-one trials including 6,800 patients were included. The overall response rates for melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were 29% (95% CI: 1.53-2.41), 21% (95% CI: 17%-25%) and 21% (95% CI: 16%-27%) respectively. While the overall adverse effects rate for melanoma, NSCLC, RCC were 16% (95% CI: 6%-28%), 11% (95% CI: 8%-14%) and 20% (95% CI: 11%-32%) respectively. Tumor PD-L1 expression and patient smoking status might serve as biomarkers to predict response of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibody treatment. Compared to tumors with negative PD-L1 expression, tumors with positive PD-L1 expression had a significantly higher clinical response rate (41.4% versus 26.5%) with RR = 1.92 (95% CI: 1.53-2.41, P < 0.001). Smoker patients also showed a significantly higher response rate (33.7%) than patients who never smoked (4.2%) with RR = 6.02 (95% CI: 1.22-29.75, P = 0.028). Nivolumab and Pembrolizumab were associated with significantly increased response rate (RR = 2.89, 95% CI: 2.46-3.40, P < 0.001), reduced death risk (HR= 0.53; 95% CI: 0.48-0.57; P < 0.001), and decreased adverse effect rate (RR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.30-0.80, P = 0.004) compared with other therapies.Clinical trials reporting response or safety of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies for advanced or refractory cancer patients published before January 31th 2016 were searched in PubMed and EMBASE database. Meta-analyses using random effects models were used to calculate the overall estimate.Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies have high response rates and low adverse effect rates for advanced or refractory cancers.