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Wang X.,Xian Jiaotong University | Xiao Y.,Xian Jiaotong University | Wang J.,Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolian Medical College | Lu X.,Capital Medical University
Mathematical Biosciences | Year: 2013

A stochastic model for hospital infection incorporating both direct transmission and indirect transmission via free-living bacteria in the environment is investigated. We examine the long term behavior of the model by calculating a stationary distribution and normal approximation of the distribution. The quasi-stationary distribution of the model is studied to investigate the models' behavior before extinction and the time to extinction. Numerical results show agreement between the calculated distributions and results of event-driven simulations. Hand hygiene of volunteers is more effective in terms of reducing the mean (or standard deviation) of the stationary distribution of colonized patients and the expected time to extinction compared to hand hygiene of health care workers (HCWs), on the basis of our parameter values. However, the indirect (or direct) transmission rate can lead to either increase or decrease in the standard deviation of the stationary distribution, but the impact of the indirect transmission is much greater than that of the direct transmission. The findings suggest that isolation of new admitted colonized patients is most effective in reducing both the mean and standard deviation of the stationary distribution and measures related to indirect transmission are secondary in their effects compared to other interventions. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Sui W.,Capital Medical University | Wang J.,Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolian Medical College | Wang H.,Capital Medical University | Wang M.,Capital Medical University | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Infection Control | Year: 2013

Background: With the increasing isolation rate of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) in China hospitals, more researches focused on its antimicrobial resistance, but few studies reported its nosocomial transmission. In this study, we aim to investigate the transmission features of MDR-AB among inpatients using target environmental monitoring. Methods: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and MDR-AB active screening and target environmental screening were performed from March 2010 to October 2011 in respiratory intensive care unit (RICU). We compared bed linen contamination rate and acquisition rate of MDR-AB with those of MRSA and analyzed the correlation between weekly colonization pressure adjusted by degree of bed linen contamination (WCPe) and weekly acquisition rate (WAR) of MDR-AB. Results: We found that both the bed linen contamination rate and the acquisition rate of MDR-AB were higher than those of MRSA (χ2 = 98.081, P < .01; χ2 = 49.844, P < .01, respectively). The correlation analysis showed positive correlation between MDR-AB WCPe and WAR (rs = 0.560, P < .01). The WCPe and WAR of MDR-AB were higher than those of MRSA (Z = -5.439, P < .01; Z = -3.258, P < .01, respectively). Conclusion: Compared with MRSA, MDR-AB carriers showed stronger ability to contaminate their immediate environment, and MDR-AB was easier to transmit among inpatients. Therefore, it was likely more important to perform active environmental monitoring as a method of transmission evaluation and a measure of routine infection control to prevent and control MDR-AB nosocomial transmission more effectively. Copyright © 2013 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Lihong W.,Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolian Medical College | Xiuhua F.,Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolian Medical College | Guizhi Z.,Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolian Medical College | Guohua L.,Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolian Medical College | And 2 more authors.
BioTechnology: An Indian Journal | Year: 2013

Objective: To investigate the value of enzyme-linked immunospot assay test (ELISPOT) (T-SPOT.TB) in the diagnosis and therapeutic effect of tuberculous pleurisy.Methods: Collected 93 cases ofAffiliated Hospital of InnerMongoliaMedical University patients with pleural effusion. The peripheral blood and pleural effusion of the patientswith non hemorrhagic exudative pleural effusion were tested by T-SPOT.TB before treatment. The peripheral blood of the patients of clinically diagnosed as tuberculous pleurisy were tested by T-SPOT.TB again after 3 months regular anti tuberculosis. Result: There are 63 cases in 93 patientswith pleural effusion were diagnosed as tuberculous pleurisy.Among them, the positive rate of T-SPOT.TB test in peripheral blood and pleural effusion was 90.48%(57/ 63) and 100%(63/63) respectively. There are 30 cases were diagnosed as non tuberculous pleurisy. Among them, the negative rate of T-SPOT.TB test in peripheral blood and pleural effusion was 83.33%(25/30) and 70%(21/30). In our study, the negative predictive value(Specificity) and the positive predictive value of T-SPOT.TB test in peripheral blood was 80.65%(25/31) and 91.94%(57/62). The negative predictive value and the positive predictive value of T-SPOT.TB test in pleural effusion was 100%(21/21) and 87.5%(63/72). The average numbers of spot forming cells(SFCs) in Pleural effusion were 4.69 times that in peripheral blood. The numbers of SFCs in peripheral blood were obviously decreased or loss after 3 months anti tuberculosis therapy. Conclusion: T-SPOT TB is a sensitive and specific test in the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy, especialy in pleural effusion. T-SPOT TB can be used as evaluation index of tuberculosis treatment. © 2013 Trade Science Inc. - INDIA.

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