Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Afe Babalola University
Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
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CONTEXT: Plants have historically been used to treat neurodegerative diseases which include Alzheimer's disease.OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the antioxidant properties and inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of Securidaca longipendunculata root and Olax subscropioidea leaf on the cholinergic system in rat brain in vitro.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous extracts (1:20 w/v) of S. longipendunculata root and O. subscropioidea leaf was prepared and the ability of the extract to inhibit the activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase was evaluated as well as antioxidants as typified by 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•) radical scavenging ability and Fe chelation spectophotometrically.RESULTS: ABTS• radical scavenging ability showed that S. longipendunculata (0.075 Mmol TEAC/100 g) had a higher scavenging ability than O. subscropioidea (0.07 Mmol TEAC/100 g). Also, the Fe2+ chelating ability of both extracts revealed that S. longipendunculata (IC50 = 105.57 g/mL) had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher Fe2+ chelating ability than O. subscropioidea (IC50 = 255.84 g/mL). Extracts of S. longipendunculata and O. subscropioidea inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities. However, S. longipendunculata (IC50 = 108.02 g/mL) has the higher AChE inhibitory activity than O. subscropioidea (IC50 = 110.35 g/mL). Also, both extracts inhibit BChE activity in vitro but S. longipendunculata (IC50 = 82.55 g/mL) had a higher BChE inhibitory activity than O. subscropioidea (IC50 = 108.44 g/mL).DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The mechanism by which S. longipendunculata root and O. subscropioidea leaf perform their anti-Alzheimer's disease activity may be by their inhibition on the key enzymes linked to this disease.

Umukoro S.,University of Ibadan | Aluko O.M.,University of Ibadan | Eduviere A.T.,Afe Babalola University | Owoeye O.,University of Ibadan
Brain Research Bulletin | Year: 2016

This study was undertaken to evaluate the adaptogenic-like activity of methyl jasmonate (MJ) in mice exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS). Male Swiss mice were treated with MJ (25-100 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before exposure to UCMS daily for 14 days prior to testing for memory and anxiety. Thereafter, the blood glucose and serum corticosterone levels were estimated using glucometer and ELISA. The brain concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were estimated using spectrophotometer. Brain histology and the population of healthy neurons in the hippocampal regions were also assessed. MJ reversed anxiety and memory impairment produced by UCMS, which suggest adaptogenic-like property. The reduction in the weight of adrenal gland and liver in MJ-treated groups further indicates adaptogenic activity. It further decreases the blood glucose and serum corticosterone levels in UCMS-mice. Also, MJ decreases the concentrations of MDA and elevated the levels of GSH in the brain of mice exposed to UCMS. Brain histology revealed that MJ attenuated UCMS-induced degeneration and death of neuronal cells in the pyramidal layer of the cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) and the sub-granular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Moreover, MJ decreased the population of dead neuronal cells of the pyramidal layer of the CA3 and the sub-granular zone of the dentate gyrus of the UCMS-mice, which suggests neuroprotection. Taken together, these findings suggest that MJ demonstrated adaptogenic-like activity in mice; which might be related to modulation of serum corticosterone levels, inhibition of oxidative stress and neuroprotection. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Solomon U.,University of Ibadan | Taghogho E.A.,Afe Babalola University
Brain Research Bulletin | Year: 2017

Neuroinflammation plays a central role in the etiology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by a gradual loss of memory functions. Thus, it has been proposed that agents that could reduce inflammatory processes in AD brains might be useful for the treatment of the disease. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is a bioactive compound, which has been reported to exhibit anti-amnesic and in vitro anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we further examine its effects on the brain levels of biomarkers of neuroinflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced memory deficits in mice. Mice (n = 6) were pretreated intraperitoneally with MJ (10–40 mg/kg), donepezil (DP) (1 mg/kg) or vehicle (10 mL/kg) for 30 min prior to injection of LPS (250 μg/kg, i.p) daily for 7 days. Thirty minutes after LPS administration on day 7, memory function was assessed using Y-maze test. After Y-maze test, the levels of biomarkers of neuroinflammation: prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin 1β (IL1β) were estimated in brain tissue homogenates using ELISA. Expressions of positive cells of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and amyloid-beta (Aβ) in the prefrontal cortex were also assessed using immunohistochemistry technique. Our data showed that MJ (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reversed LPS-induced memory deficits in mice. The increased brain levels of PGE2, TNFα and IL1β in LPS-treated mice were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by MJ indicating anti-neuroinflammatory activity. MJ also suppressed the expression of COX2, iNOS and NFκB, which further suggest anti-neuroinflammation. The increased brain level of Aβ in LPS-treated mice was significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed by MJ suggesting anti-amyloidogenesis-like effect. Our present data showed that MJ attenuated LPS-induced memory dysfunction via mechanisms involving inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators and beta-amyloid generation in mice. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Ogundipe I.E.,Afe Babalola University
Journal of African Earth Sciences | Year: 2017

The Benue trough is an intra-continental rift initiated in the Cretaceous during the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. Lead-zinc-barite-fluorite mineralization occurs along the 600 km axis of the trough in three discrete sub-basins which coincide with the lower, middle and upper mineral districts of the Benue Valley. Lithologically these sub-basins are dominated by black carbonaceous shale in the Lower Benue, platform carbonates in the Middle Benue and sandstones in the Upper Benue. Micro-thermometric analysis of fluid inclusions in sphalerite, fluorite, barite and quartz have shown that each mineral district has its own unique thermal and chemical imprint. For example, the temperature can be bracketed between 109 °C and 160 °C for lower Benue, 89 °C–144 °C for the Middle Benue and 176 °C–254 °C for the Upper Benue. Chemical differentiation also exists between each mineral district with the Lower Benue having 22 wt % equivalent NaCl while the Middle and Upper Benue have 18 and 16 wt % equivalent NaCl respectively. This study shows that inter-district thermal and chemical variations exist between the ore-stage sulfide and post-sulfide gangue minerals of the entire Benue Valley. Similarly, intra-district thermal and chemical variations have also been observed among all the paragenetic minerals of each district. The thermal variations may be as a result of variations in the geothermal gradient accompanying continental rifting from one district to the other. The variations in the chemistry between the Lower Benue and the Upper Benue paragenic minerals may be as a result of the distinct lithological differences across the Benue Trough. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Akomolafe J.K.,Afe Babalola University | Ogunleye E.O.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism | Year: 2017

Despite the abundant deposit of gas resources in Nigeria, a large proportion of the country’s population still depend on traditional fuels such as firewood for cooking. This study investigates the determinants of households’ fuel choice in urban Nigeria. This study made use of primary data which were collected through administration of questionnaires in twelve states spread across six geopolitical zones in Nigeria. The cooking fuels examined are firewood, kerosene, LPG, and electricity. Multinomial logit model was used to estimate the determinants of fuel choices. The results showed that income, age of the wife, education level of the wife, and household size were important factors that determine cooking fuel choices across the country. The paper concludes that efforts should be aimed at making clean cooking fuels especially LPG affordable and available for urban households. © 2017. ASERS Publishing. All rights reserved.

Background and Objective: The generation of wastewater containing heavy metals has become an issue as their release into the environment has increased as a result of industrialization. This wastewater contains amounts of heavy metals that are harmful to human beings and aquatic species. This present study was aimed to develop mixed anthill-chicken eggshell as composite adsorbent and use to remove heavy metals contained in an aqueous solution via adsorption process. Materials and Methods: The stock solution was prepared by dissolving desired amount of Cu(II) and Zn(II) nitrate in a known volume of deionized water. After preparation of anthill and eggshell powders, the mixed anthill-eggshell preparation conditions were optimized by maximizing the heavy metals uptakes using Central Composite Design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) in design expert 7.0.0 as an optimization tool. The fitness of the developed models was evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA-Type III). Results: Findings revealed that the predicted Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions uptakes from the two suggested models agreed reasonably well with the experimental values. The obtained data showed that at 863.78EC calcination temperature, 4 h calcination time and eggshell/anthill mixing ratio of 1.86, the percentages of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions removed from aqueous solution by optimal composite anthill-eggshell adsorbent were 97.89 and 99.34% respectively. Conclusion: The analyses results revealed that composite anthill-eggshell adsorbent was porous, possessed active functional groups on its surface and made up of active mixed metal oxides with close interaction. © 2017 Adeyinka Sikiru Yusuff.

Oyebode K.O.,Afe Babalola University
Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2017

Image denoising provides an opportunity to minimize unwanted signal from any image in order to improve its interpretation by either human or machine. In the medical context, image denoising serves as a critical element of image processing as it helps to improve the quality of data presented for manual or automatic diagnosis. While there exist a number of image denoising methods such as the median, diffusion and Gaussian filtering, selecting a suitable one for cell segmentation may be challenging as one is tasked with ensuring adopted denoising method preserves critical object structures, like boundaries, while at the same time minimizing noise. In this paper, we discuss two popular denoising methods (diffusion filtering and Gaussian filtering) and investigates their significance, in improving the accuracy of segmented cell images, both individually and by their combinations. Experiment carried out on public and private datasets of cell images indicates an improved segmentation accuracy when cell images are first denoised with the combination of diffusion and Gaussian filtering as against individual denoising methods. © 2017 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Oyinloye B.E.,University of Zululand | Oyinloye B.E.,Afe Babalola University | Adenowo A.F.,University of Zululand | Kappo A.P.,University of Zululand
Pharmaceuticals | Year: 2015

Excessive free radical generation, especially reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress in the biological system, has been implicated in the pathogenesis and pathological conditions associated with diverse human inflammatory diseases (HIDs). Although inflammation which is considered advantageous is a defensive mechanism in response to xenobiotics and foreign pathogen; as a result of cellular damage arising from oxidative stress, if uncontrolled, it may degenerate to chronic inflammation when the ROS levels exceed the antioxidant capacity. Therefore, in the normal resolution of inflammatory reactions, apoptosis is acknowledged to play a crucial role, while on the other hand, dysregulation in the induction of apoptosis by enhanced ROS production could also result in excessive apoptosis identified in the pathogenesis of HIDs. Apparently, a careful balance must be maintained in this complex environment. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed in this review as an excellent candidate capable of playing prominent roles in maintaining this balance. Consequently, in novel drug design for the treatment and management of HIDs, AMPs are promising candidates owing to their size and multidimensional properties as well as their wide spectrum of activities and indications of reduced rate of resistance. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Akinyemi A.J.,Federal University of Technology Akurre | Akinyemi A.J.,Afe Babalola University | Ademiluyi A.O.,Federal University of Technology Akurre | Oboh G.,Federal University of Technology Akurre
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2014

Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) commonly consumed in Nigeria on ACE activity in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. The inhibition of ACE activity of two varieties of ginger (Z. officinale) was investigated in a high cholesterol (2%) diet fed to rats for 3 days. Feeding high cholesterol diets to rats caused a significant (P<.05) increase in the ACE activity. However, there was a significant (P<.05) inhibition of ACE activity as a result of supplementation with the ginger varieties. Rats that were fed 4% white ginger had the greatest inhibitory effect as compared with a control diet. Furthermore, there was a significant (P<.05) increase in the plasma lipid profile with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in rat liver and heart tissues. However, supplementing the diet with red and white ginger (either 2% or 4%) caused a significant (P<.05) decrease in the plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and in MDA content in the tissues. Conversely, supplementation caused a significant (P<.05) increase in plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level when compared with the control diet. Nevertheless, rats fed 4% red ginger had the greatest reduction as compared with control diet. In conclusion, both ginger varieties exhibited anti-hypercholesterolemic properties in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats. This activity of the gingers may be attributed to its ACE inhibitory activity. However, white ginger inhibited ACE better in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats than red ginger. Therefore, both gingers could serve as good functional foods/nutraceuticals in the management/treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. © 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Giwa A.,Afe Babalola University
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Year: 2016

This research work has been carried out to investigate the performances of proportional-integral (PI) and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers tuned with Cohen-Coon, Tyreus-Luyben and Ziegler-Nichols techniques on a reactive distillation process used for the production of a fuel additive. The fuel additive considered was isopropyl alcohol that was obtained from the top section of a prototype reactive distillation column plant developed with the aid of Aspen HYSYS. The model used for the process control was estimated using the data generated from Parametric Utility of the Aspen HYSYS prototype plant and pem command of System Identification Toolbox of MATLAB. Furthermore, the open-loop and the closed-loop Simulink models of the system were developed and simulated appropriately. The results obtained from the open-loop simulations carried out revealed that the system was a stable one because it was able to attain steady-states within the simulation times considered. Also observed from the closed-loop simulations was that the best tuning method for both PI and PID controllers in suppressing large and small errors was Tyreus-Luyben technique. However, in suppressing any error persisting for a long period of time, Ziegler-Nichols method was found to be the best for PI controller while for PID controller, it was Cohen-Coon tuning technique. Further comparing the performance values of the controllers, it was discovered that the PID controllers tuned with the different techniques were better than the PI controllers because the corresponding integral of square error (ISE), integral of absolute value of the error (IAE) and integral of time-weighted absolute error (ITAE) values of the PID controllers were found to be less than those of the PI controllers considered for the process. © 2006-2016 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN).

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