Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Afe Babalola University
Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

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CONTEXT: Plants have historically been used to treat neurodegerative diseases which include Alzheimer's disease.OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the antioxidant properties and inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of Securidaca longipendunculata root and Olax subscropioidea leaf on the cholinergic system in rat brain in vitro.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous extracts (1:20 w/v) of S. longipendunculata root and O. subscropioidea leaf was prepared and the ability of the extract to inhibit the activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase was evaluated as well as antioxidants as typified by 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•) radical scavenging ability and Fe chelation spectophotometrically.RESULTS: ABTS• radical scavenging ability showed that S. longipendunculata (0.075 Mmol TEAC/100 g) had a higher scavenging ability than O. subscropioidea (0.07 Mmol TEAC/100 g). Also, the Fe2+ chelating ability of both extracts revealed that S. longipendunculata (IC50 = 105.57 g/mL) had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher Fe2+ chelating ability than O. subscropioidea (IC50 = 255.84 g/mL). Extracts of S. longipendunculata and O. subscropioidea inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities. However, S. longipendunculata (IC50 = 108.02 g/mL) has the higher AChE inhibitory activity than O. subscropioidea (IC50 = 110.35 g/mL). Also, both extracts inhibit BChE activity in vitro but S. longipendunculata (IC50 = 82.55 g/mL) had a higher BChE inhibitory activity than O. subscropioidea (IC50 = 108.44 g/mL).DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The mechanism by which S. longipendunculata root and O. subscropioidea leaf perform their anti-Alzheimer's disease activity may be by their inhibition on the key enzymes linked to this disease.

Giwa A.,Afe Babalola University | Giwa S.O.,Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University
International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa | Year: 2017

This work has been carried out to demonstrate the application of a process simulator known as CHEMCAD to the modelling and the simulation of a reactive distillation process used for the production of n-butyl acetate, with water as the by-product, from the esterification reaction between acetic acid and n-butanol. The esterification reaction, which is generally an equilibrium type, was modelled as two kinetic reaction types in the reaction section of the column used, which had 17 stages with the middle section (stages 6-12) being the reaction section. A reflux ratio of 3 and reboiler duty of 78 kJ/min as well as 30 mL/min of each of the reactants with 99% molar purity were used for the simulation of the column. The results obtained revealed that the developed model was a valid one because there was a very good agreement between the results and the theoretical knowledge of a distillation column based on the fact that the desired (which was the heavy) product (n-butyl acetate) was found to have the highest mole fraction in the bottom section of the column while the by-product of the process (water) was discovered to have a mole fraction higher than that of n-butyl acetate in the top (condenser) section of the column. Therefore, CHEMCAD has been applied to the steady-state simulation of the reactive distillation process used for the production of n-butyl acetate from the esterification reaction of acetic acid and n-butanol successfully. © 2017 Trans Tech Publications.

Oyinloye B.E.,University of Zululand | Oyinloye B.E.,Afe Babalola University | Adenowo A.F.,University of Zululand | Kappo A.P.,University of Zululand
Pharmaceuticals | Year: 2015

Excessive free radical generation, especially reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress in the biological system, has been implicated in the pathogenesis and pathological conditions associated with diverse human inflammatory diseases (HIDs). Although inflammation which is considered advantageous is a defensive mechanism in response to xenobiotics and foreign pathogen; as a result of cellular damage arising from oxidative stress, if uncontrolled, it may degenerate to chronic inflammation when the ROS levels exceed the antioxidant capacity. Therefore, in the normal resolution of inflammatory reactions, apoptosis is acknowledged to play a crucial role, while on the other hand, dysregulation in the induction of apoptosis by enhanced ROS production could also result in excessive apoptosis identified in the pathogenesis of HIDs. Apparently, a careful balance must be maintained in this complex environment. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed in this review as an excellent candidate capable of playing prominent roles in maintaining this balance. Consequently, in novel drug design for the treatment and management of HIDs, AMPs are promising candidates owing to their size and multidimensional properties as well as their wide spectrum of activities and indications of reduced rate of resistance. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Akinyemi A.J.,Federal University of Technology Akurre | Akinyemi A.J.,Afe Babalola University | Ademiluyi A.O.,Federal University of Technology Akurre | Oboh G.,Federal University of Technology Akurre
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2013

Ginger has reportedly been used in folk medicine for the management and prevention of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of two varieties of ginger on a key enzyme linked to hypertension (angiotensin I-converting enzyme [ACE]), and on pro-oxidants [Fe2+ and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)] which have been shown to induce lipid peroxidation in the rat's isolated heart in vitro. Aqueous extracts (0.05 mg/mL) of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) and white ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were prepared and the ability of the extracts to inhibit ACE along with Fe 2+- and SNP-induced lipid peroxidation was determined in rat's heart in vitro. Results revealed that both extracts inhibited ACE in a dose-dependent manner (25-125 μg/mL). However, red ginger extract (EC50=27.5 μg/mL) had a significantly (P<.05) higher inhibitory effect on ACE than white ginger extract (EC50=87.0 μg/mL). Furthermore, incubation of the rat's heart in the presence of Fe2+ and SNP caused a significant increase (P<.05) in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the heart homogenates, while the introduction of the ginger extracts (78-313 μg/mL) caused a dose-dependent decrease in the MDA content of the stressed heart homogenates. This suggests that the possible mechanism through which ginger exerts its antihypertensive properties may be through inhibition of ACE activity and prevention of lipid peroxidation in the heart. Furthermore, red ginger showed stronger inhibition of ACE than white ginger. Additionally, it should be noted that these protective properties of the ginger varieties could be attributed to their polyphenol contents. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Akinyemi A.J.,Federal University of Technology Akurre | Akinyemi A.J.,Afe Babalola University | Ademiluyi A.O.,Federal University of Technology Akurre | Oboh G.,Federal University of Technology Akurre
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2014

Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) commonly consumed in Nigeria on ACE activity in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. The inhibition of ACE activity of two varieties of ginger (Z. officinale) was investigated in a high cholesterol (2%) diet fed to rats for 3 days. Feeding high cholesterol diets to rats caused a significant (P<.05) increase in the ACE activity. However, there was a significant (P<.05) inhibition of ACE activity as a result of supplementation with the ginger varieties. Rats that were fed 4% white ginger had the greatest inhibitory effect as compared with a control diet. Furthermore, there was a significant (P<.05) increase in the plasma lipid profile with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in rat liver and heart tissues. However, supplementing the diet with red and white ginger (either 2% or 4%) caused a significant (P<.05) decrease in the plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and in MDA content in the tissues. Conversely, supplementation caused a significant (P<.05) increase in plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level when compared with the control diet. Nevertheless, rats fed 4% red ginger had the greatest reduction as compared with control diet. In conclusion, both ginger varieties exhibited anti-hypercholesterolemic properties in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats. This activity of the gingers may be attributed to its ACE inhibitory activity. However, white ginger inhibited ACE better in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats than red ginger. Therefore, both gingers could serve as good functional foods/nutraceuticals in the management/treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. © 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Oboh G.,Federal University of Technology Akurre | Agunloye O.M.,Federal University of Technology Akurre | Akinyemi A.J.,Federal University of Technology Akurre | Akinyemi A.J.,Afe Babalola University | And 2 more authors.
Neurochemical Research | Year: 2013

This study sought to investigate and compare the interaction of caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and some pro-oxidants (FeSO4, sodium nitroprusside and quinolinic acid) induced oxidative stress in rat brain in vitro. The result revealed that caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid inhibited AChE and BChE activities in dose-dependent manner; however, caffeic acid had a higher inhibitory effect on AChE and BChE activities than chlorogenic acid. Combination of the phenolic acids inhibited AChE and BChE activities antagonistically. Furthermore, pro-oxidants such as, FeSO4, sodium nitroprusside and quinolinic acid caused increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the brain which was significantly decreased dose-dependently by the phenolic acids. Inhibition of AChE and BChE activities slows down acetylcholine and butyrylcholine breakdown in the brain. Therefore, one possible mechanism through which the phenolic acids exert their neuroprotective properties is by inhibiting AChE and BChE activities as well as preventing oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration. However, esterification of caffeic acid with quinic acid producing chlorogenic acid affects these neuroprotective properties. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Oluwasusi J.O.,Afe Babalola University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Information | Year: 2014

This study aimed to identify the factors that determine the utilization of ICT among agricultural students at tertiary institutions in the South Western Zone of Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 240 respondents from the tertiary institutions. Students were mostly male with a mean age of 23.4 years and enrolled in undergraduate programs. Respondents had a high knowledge of ICT utilization despite poor electricity supply, insufficient financial resources, and inadequate ICT infrastructures. A significant relationship existed between constraints, perception of ICT benefits, and utilization of ICT. ANOVA showed a significant difference in the students' level of ICT utilization (F = 26.791; p <.05). Schools should seek private-sector collaboration to alternatively fund ICT amenities on campuses. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Temisanren B.U.,Malu Production Platform | Igbafe A.I.,Afe Babalola University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

This study investigates the transport profile and source-sink system for atmospheric aerosols over Warri area of the Niger Delta subregion of Nigeria. The study utilized GPS information of the study locations to simulate meteorological variables over the area from the Air Resource Laboratory (ARL) website. The ARL/GFS model was used to determine the wind-field information between 1st and 8th March 2012 over sub region. In addition backward air mass trajectories were determined at various heights of 5m, 1000m and 2000m AGL for aerosol transport pattern, as well as concentration dispersion using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. During the study period, aerosols were noticed to evolve from the sea of the Atlantic Ocean, hence are likely of sea salt origin. Winds over the sub region ranged between 4 and 6 m/s and predominantly in the south and south westerly directions. The maximum pollutant concentration observed was about 1.0 x 10-12 μg/m3 while the minimum was about 1.5 x 10-24 μg/m3. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Giwa A.,Afe Babalola University
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Year: 2016

This research work has been carried out to investigate the performances of proportional-integral (PI) and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers tuned with Cohen-Coon, Tyreus-Luyben and Ziegler-Nichols techniques on a reactive distillation process used for the production of a fuel additive. The fuel additive considered was isopropyl alcohol that was obtained from the top section of a prototype reactive distillation column plant developed with the aid of Aspen HYSYS. The model used for the process control was estimated using the data generated from Parametric Utility of the Aspen HYSYS prototype plant and pem command of System Identification Toolbox of MATLAB. Furthermore, the open-loop and the closed-loop Simulink models of the system were developed and simulated appropriately. The results obtained from the open-loop simulations carried out revealed that the system was a stable one because it was able to attain steady-states within the simulation times considered. Also observed from the closed-loop simulations was that the best tuning method for both PI and PID controllers in suppressing large and small errors was Tyreus-Luyben technique. However, in suppressing any error persisting for a long period of time, Ziegler-Nichols method was found to be the best for PI controller while for PID controller, it was Cohen-Coon tuning technique. Further comparing the performance values of the controllers, it was discovered that the PID controllers tuned with the different techniques were better than the PI controllers because the corresponding integral of square error (ISE), integral of absolute value of the error (IAE) and integral of time-weighted absolute error (ITAE) values of the PID controllers were found to be less than those of the PI controllers considered for the process. © 2006-2016 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN).

Oluwasusi J.O.,Afe Babalola University
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2013

The study investigated farmers adaptation strategies to the effect of climate variation on yam production in Ekiti State with the specific objectives of assessing the socio-economic characteristics of farmers, farmers' climate related constraints, the adaptation strategies employed by farmers, and yam farmers' level of production across the years 2008, 2009 and 2010. Multistage sampling technique was used to select one hundred and fifty one respondents from the list of contact farmers obtained from the state Agricultural Development Programme (ADP). Data was collected through structured interview schedule, analysed using frequency counts, percentages, Chi-square and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Results obtained showed that farmers in the study area were mostly males with a mean age of 53.9 years. Chi-square analysis revealed that there was a significant relationship between secondary occupation (χ2 = 14.068), farm size (χ2 = 99.597) and the level of production of yam farmers. Pearson product moment correlation indicated that there was significant and positive relationship between age (r = 0.160), adaptation strategies (r = 0.158) and level of production, while negative relationship was found between constraints (r = -0.173) and the level of yam production. ANOVA showed a significant difference in the level of production of farmers across the years; 2008, 2009 and 2010 (F = 212.7). Therefore, efforts should be geared towards developing and making available, yam seeds and tubers that are tolerant to change in climate elements and weather extremes like flood and drought. These findings suggest the need for more environmental education, prompt weather information and sustainable yam cropping.

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