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Abu-Bakar S.H.,Glasgow Caledonian University | Abu-Bakar S.H.,University of Kuala Lumpur | Muhammad-Sukki F.,Glasgow Caledonian University | Muhammad-Sukki F.,Multimedia University | And 6 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

This paper focuses on the renewable heat incentive (RHI) scheme in the United Kingdom (UK); and in particular, on its implications in relation to solar thermal systems (STSs). First, a short review on the UK's energy demand is provided. Then, an overview of the past and present activities related to STS installations is discussed, covering regulation, policies and programmes, research and development expenditures and implementations. A financial analysis is presented afterwards, analysing the RHI scheme, in terms of total profit, payback period and average annual return on investment. This is based on installations of different sizes and at various levels of solar insolation. The analysis also presents the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions that could be achieved by installing an STS. From the financial analysis it is found that the RHI scheme could generate a good total profit, a high average annual return on the investment and an 'acceptable' payback period, depending on locations. As a result, it could increase the penetration of solar thermal systems in the UK. Significant reductions of carbon dioxide emission can also be achieved by installing an STS on a building. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Abu-Bakar S.H.,Glasgow Caledonian University | Abu-Bakar S.H.,University of Kuala Lumpur | Muhammad-Sukki F.,Glasgow Caledonian University | Muhammad-Sukki F.,Multimedia University | And 6 more authors.
PECon 2012 - 2012 IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy | Year: 2012

This paper focuses on the renewable heat incentive (RHI) scheme in the United Kingdom (UK); and in particular, on its implications in relation to solar thermal systems. First, a short review on the UK's energy demand is provided. Then, a brief explanation of solar thermal systems is presented, followed by a detailed description of the renewable heat incentives. A financial analysis is presented afterwards, analysing the impact of the RHI scheme to the applicants, in terms of payback period and average annual return on investment. This is based on installations of different sizes and at various levels of solar insolation. The analysis also presents the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions that could be achieved by installing a solar thermal system. From the financial analysis it has been found that the RHI scheme could generate moderate average annual returns on investment and 'acceptable' payback periods. As a result, it could increase the penetration of solar thermal systems in the UK. Significant reductions of carbon dioxide emission can also be achieved by installing a solar thermal system on a building. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Csoke B.,University of Miskolc | Faitli J.,University of Miskolc | Mucsi G.,University of Miskolc | Antal G.,University of Miskolc | Bartok F.,AES Co.
International Journal of Mineral Processing | Year: 2012

Today, renewable energy sources - e.g. forest biomass - are of great importance, not only domestic but also industrial - f.i. wood fired power station - utilization is wide spread as well. However, the comminution of such fibrous texture materials requires relatively high energy and special grinding stress. In the thermal power station of AES Co. Ltd., Berente mainly wood biomass is burned as fuel. The size reduction of biomass is achieved by beater wheel mills, which were designed originally for coal. The aim of the research carried out by the University of Miskolc was to increase the capacity of the fuel supplying system. Systematic industrial and laboratory experimental series were carried out under different conditions and results are presented in this study. During the on-site industrial tests four fuel supplying systems (beater wheel mill, air classifier, heat exchanger, pipes) were equipped with a complete data acquisition system containing different sensors. Three sampling points were built 1) from the feed, 2) from the rejected coarse material after the air classifier and 3) from the final product (isokinetic) from the pneumatic transport pipe. Biomass moisture significantly influenced comminution energy consumption, especially for finer size reduction. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Abu-Bakar S.H.,Glasgow Caledonian University | Abu-Bakar S.H.,University of Kuala Lumpur | Muhammad-Sukki F.,Glasgow Caledonian University | Muhammad-Sukki F.,Multimedia University | And 6 more authors.
Energy Policy | Year: 2014

This short communication paper focuses on the renewable heat incentive (RHI) scheme in the United Kingdom (UK); and in particular, on its implication on domestic installations of solar thermal systems (STSs). First, a short review on the STS in the UK is provided. Then, a detailed description of the RHI is discussed. A financial analysis is presented afterwards, analysing the impact of the RHI scheme on the applicants, in terms of the net present value and the internal rate of return. From the financial analysis it has been found that the RHI scheme for domestic installations is only attractive if a longer period of RHI payment, i.e. 17 years, or a higher RHI rate i.e. £0.32 per kW. h is implemented. The current proposal from the UK government is not financially viable, and as a result, it may hinder the penetration of domestic solar thermal systems in the residential sector in the UK. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


A modifying agent for a concrete structure that allows the modification operation of a concrete structure to be safe for the human body and simple, and is capable of imparting high durability to a concrete structure, and a method for manufacturing the modifying agent. A method for repairing a concrete structure, capable of efficiently repairing in a shorter time than conventional methods for repairing a concrete structure. The modifying agent for a concrete structure is an alkaline electrolyzed water. The alkaline electrolyzed water includes calcium ions dissolved therein. The pH of the alkaline electrolyzed water is, for example, 11 or more.

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