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Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETOPEN-1-2014 | Award Amount: 2.70M | Year: 2016

ICARUS proposes a new thermodynamic methodology able to identify the elements and the relative chemical composition allowing a nanocrystalline state to occupy a relative minimum of the Gibbs free energy, which makes the nanostructure reasonably stable against coarsening. This approach will be integrated, in synergy with multiscale and thermodynamic (Nano-Calphad) modeling, in order to implement a High-Throughput Screening (HTS) tool that will open a new horizon of discovery and exploration of multinary thermal stable nanocrystalline alloys, exhibiting superb tailored properties. ICARUS brings a radically new concept by addressing a still unsolved problem in the stabilization of nanocrystalline alloys. The materials discovery approach of ICARUS will be synergistic with the forefront industrial production technologies of nanomaterials and alloys. Results arising from ICARUS exploration will be materialized in specific demo compounds representative of carefully selected new alloys families that will change the present paradigm of EU aerospace industry. The most promising nanocrystallyne material identified will be synthesized by mechanical alloying and physical vapor deposition, and the obtained samples characterized toward the applicability in the aerospace sector. A proof of concept from its approach will be given and tested by experts and specialized industries working in the aerospace sector in close contact with NASA and ESA. In particular, ICARUS will demonstrate its potential by producing innovative coarsening-resistant nanocrystalline alloys with enhanced radiation tolerance (based on refractory metals), and light-weight high strength (based on Al, Mg, Ti) alloys.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2007-2.1-2 | Award Amount: 4.74M | Year: 2008

The project aims at the development of a new type of coatings based on Complex Metallic Alloys (CMA). This is a family of ternary and quaternary alloys which exhibit unexpected properties. The CMAs Al61.5Cu25.3Fe12.2 B1 and Al59.5Cu25.3Fe12.2 B3 consist only of metals, which show not metallic- but ceramic-like behaviour. Moreover, the bulk versions of these quasicrystals have proven outstanding properties as extremely low surface energy (wetting) and highest fretting wear resistance. The CMA AlMgB14 is known to be the hardest material after diamond. However, until now these outstanding properties could not be realised as coatings. First trials to develop coating processes were not successful, but showed reasonable concepts to solve the problems. The appliCMA project will focus on the development of PVD deposited coatings based on these three well-specified compositions. Following the mentioned outstanding properties of the three CMAs, the project is driven by applications for which they offer a remarkable step forward: tools for cutting, forming, extrusion dies, moulds for injection moulding, coated cookers oven for less sticking, fretting resistant coatings for aeroplanes, but also coatings of stamps for Nano-Imprint-Technology (NIL). The project includes 9 researchers and 8 industries (including SME) in 8 member and associated state of the EU. They will deal with the fine tailoring of coatings and the processing of surface layers by PVD processes. Measurements of the micro/nano topography, electronic structure, phase transformations, microstructure and adhesion of the CMA coatings will be realized. The project will start with lab samples tested in lab facilities and will end with demonstrators tested in application related tests by end users. The project studies also fundamental mechanisms of the phase transitions in the manufacturing process of the targeted coatings, friction on these materials and simulation of friction in the forming applications.

Scheerer M.,Aerospace and Advanced Composites GmbH | Lager D.,AIT Austrian Institute of Technology
7th European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, EWSHM 2014 - 2nd European Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) Society | Year: 2014

Within this paper the authors implemented and tested three different methods for temperature compensation - best baseline approach, signal interpolation and frequency shift - on thin monolithic composite plates and composite honeycomb panels together with the effectiveness of the different approaches for damage detection and localization under varying temperature conditions using sparse array configurations. The effectiveness of the different procedures have been compared and ranked. The best suited procedure - the frequency shift approach using the closest baseline measurement - was implemented in virtual beam forming algorithm used to visualize the ultrasonic image of the structure. Experiments have been conducted on an 800 × 800 mm2 honeycomb panel instrumented with 4 piezo actuators and 8 piezo sensors. Different baseline measurements at various temperatures have been compared against measurement after the application of artificial damages using the best suited temperature compensation technique. It could be shown that temperature differences of several degrees between the baseline measurement and the measurement after damage introduction completely hides the appearance of the damage without using temperature compensation techniques. On the other hand all damages could be successfully detected and located when applying the proposed temperature compensation technique. Copyright © Inria (2014).

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SPA.2012.2.2-02 | Award Amount: 2.72M | Year: 2013

There are key space technologies existing at European level and during the last space calls many European projects are framed on space re-entry, but none of them dealing with radically new technologies, able to compete with technologies from other leading countries or allowing collaboration with them. The THOR project will provide knowledge in key space technologies for accessing space, through the design and development of disruptive technologies based on novel thermal management concepts which are specifically targeted to atmospheric entries of future space vehicles and hypersonic transport vehicles. This project, including the participation of several SMEs and relevant end-users, aims at the collaboration among them to strengthen the European space sector and enable international cooperation. The technical approach is focused non-local concepts for thermal management including active cooling as well as passive cooling technologies, in order to extent the capabilities of re-usable Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) towards the requirement of future space flight including hypersonic transport. To achieve this technical target radically new thermal management solutions will be implemented in a new concept of TPS together with innovative materials and unique ceramic structures, reaching a TRL 2-3 at the end of the project. The passive systems will be based on thermal equilibration establishing an efficient heat transfer from highly loaded areas to regions with less loading. New ceramic matrix composites incorporating a new generation of highly thermal conductive fibres will be applied. In addition, active cooling will be implemented by passing a fluid through a ceramic porous structure. The project includes a strong effort on design, modelling and simulation in order to fulfil the technical requirements before integrating the complete TPS. Finally the concepts will be verified by ground tests under realistic entry conditions in high enthalpy facilities.

Katsich C.,Ac2t Research Gmbh | Polak R.,Aerospace and Advanced Composites GmbH
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2016

The main aim of this study was to determine the influence of substrate heat treatment on iron and nickel based hardfacings under two and three-body conditions. Commonly used wear resistant tempered steel was used as substrate material. Heat treatment investigations were performed on two Fe-based tool steel alloys (M2 and FeVCrC) and a Ni-based alloy reinforced with WC/W2C (Ni-FTC) deposited by plasma transferred arc technology (PTA), respectively. After hardfacing a heat treatment optimized for tempered steel substrate was performed on hardfaced samples. Microstructure investigations were done by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and hardness measurements. Additionally wear behavior was estimated by dry-sand rubber-wheel test (three-body abrasion) and continuous impact abrasion test (two-body abrasion). Results showed significant influence of heat treatment, due to microstructural changes, on wear performance under 3-body conditions of Fe-based tool steels. This effect was not as pronounced in Ni-based alloy than in types of tool steel. Interestingly, in both M2 tool steel and Ni-based systems heat treatment led to the decrease of the two-body abrasive wear resistance. However, heat treated V-rich tool steel type showed good wear performance in continuous impact abrasion test. Composed wear map, based on this study, shows critical changes in general wear performance for investigated hardfacings. © 2016 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Rojacz H.,Ac2t Research Gmbh | Mozdzen G.,Aerospace and Advanced Composites GmbH | Winkelmann H.,Ac2t Research Gmbh
Materials Characterization | Year: 2014

Strain hardening is a common technique to exploit the full potential of materials in diverse applications. Single impact studies were performed to evaluate work hardening effects of different steels, correlated to their deformation at different energy and momentum levels. Three different steels were examined regarding their forming behavior and their tendency to strain harden in impact loading conditions, revealing different intensities of hardness increase, deformation and coinciding microstructural changes. Detailed studies in the deformed zone such as micro hardness mappings were performed to reveal the materials hardness increase in the deformed zones. Additionally high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) supported by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to determine microstructural changes. Results indicate, that the influence of different velocities/strain rates at constant energy levels cannot be neglected for the strain hardening behavior of steels and provide data for a better control of the hardness increase in impact dominated materials fabrication operations. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SPA.2010.2.2-01 | Award Amount: 1.70M | Year: 2011

On spacecrafts reduction of mass and power consumption are a major issue. On the other hand, in case of mechanisms for Solar Arrays or antennas big masses have to be moved and kept in position for long times. Harmonic Drives would fulfil the requirements: high gear ratios enable the use of small actuator motors (low mass and power), they provide high stiffness and high precision even at very low speeds. However, the use is presently limited by the need of grease lubrication. This is linked with risk of outgassing, contamination of other parts and limits the usage in temperatures approx. -50C to \70C. The use of solid lubricants typically for bearings may extremely widen the usage to at least -170C to 300C. First trials to apply these technologies for space use based on commercial available coatings (partially used in space bearings) did not lead to success, due to the strongly differing mechanical and contact situation in the Harmonic Drive. Therefore, project HarmLES will focus on the development of solid lubricant coatings for Harmonic Drives in space. This is seen as an integrated approach between gear design and material adaptation and the application of a suitable coating. It will start with a promising composite coating which has already been tested in space. On the other hand, a huge variety of coatings are available that claim self-lubricating, they will be benchmarked for their applicability in space. Besides space related lab-testing, application testing will ensure the proper feedback. The overall, tribosystem will be re-considered on bases of FEM-simulations and alternative material solutions. An end-user group consisting of several industrial end-users from space will be involved to recommend the research path by defining requirements for later applications. The consortium is small, but it covers the major players and reflects existing expertise in this field to perform the project successfully.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SME-2 | Phase: Space-SME-2014-2 | Award Amount: 950.00K | Year: 2015

The main goal of this project is the development of an industrial plug & play system for additive layer manufacturing which is based on a blown powder process using Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) Technology. The developed 4M System will offer: a) Simple equipment concept based on well established PTA technology for hard facing coatings b) Possibility to realize Multi-Material concepts c) Suitability of the technology to be used for a wide range of raw materials d) High deposition/building rates e) Possibility to realize large size components (up to 1,5 m x 1,5 m in the first version) Within the project the system will be developed to be used for wo different materials (Al and Ti-alloys) and to demonstrate one multi-material concept. The developed process will be used to realize three different demonstrators (case studies) and to perform testing of the manufactured prototypes under space relevant testing conditions.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CS | Phase: JTI-CS-2010-3-SFWA-01-027 | Award Amount: 598.23K | Year: 2011

Within the EC Clean Sky - Smart Fixed Wing Aircraft initiative concepts for actuating morphing wing structures are under development. In order for developing a complete integrated system including the actuation, the structure to be actuated and the closed loop control unit a hybrid deflection and damage monitoring system is required. The aim of the proposed project FOS3D is to develop and validate a fiber optic sensing system based on low-coherence interferometry for simultaneous deflection and damage monitoring. The proposed system uses several distributed and multiplexed fiber optic Michelson interferometers to monitor the strain distribution over the actuated part. In addition the same sensor principle will be used to acquire and locate the acoustic emission signals originated from the onset and growth of defects like impact damages, cracks and delaminations.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SPA.2010.2.2-01 | Award Amount: 2.69M | Year: 2011

The aim of this proposal is the development of ceramic composites structures which are needed for applications in aggressive environments, where (oxidative) and temperatures are required, such as hot parts of space vehicles for orbital re-entry (reusable launcher vehicles, RLVs). The solution will be focused on re-usable systems. As expressed by the European Commission a non-dependent access to the critical space technology is required at European level. Therefore the strategy is to focus on materials systems able to be in a medium term independent from the technologies that already exist outside Europe (mainly in USA, China and Russia). The technical approach is focused on the development of multilayer concept based on high temperature ceramics (HTCs) and ultrahigh temperature ceramics (UHTCs) with multiple tailored properties. Their joining processes to conventional structural ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) or novel porous sandwich structures, and the final attachment to metallic structures. The MULTIFUNCTIONAL COMPONENT can be broken down at three levels: 1st Level: This will be composed of multilayers. 2nd Level: This will be composed of qualified CMCs or novel CMC-SiC foam sandwich structures. 3thLevel: This will be composed of the metallic structural frames. A TPS technology sample design will be provided and will be aided by materials modelling and simulation via conventional methods and computed tomography will be used to obtain a real FEM model. The output will be to determine critical parameters such as thicknesses and geometries. The technology sample will be ground tested for simulation of the re-entry conditions and will determine the fundamental performance and the degradation mechanisms. The results will be reviewed in comparison with the outputs of TPS requirements and environment specifications. This will result in the completion of the validation of the TPS performance and the assessment of achievement of a TRL 4-5.

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