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Tachikawa, Japan

Mori Y.,Aeromedical Laboratory | Mori Y.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | Nakamura S.,National Defense Medical College | Kawakami M.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2010

We produced low-molecular-weight heparin/protamine nanoparticles (LMW-H/P NPs) as a carrier for heparin-binding growth factors, such as fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). A mixture of low-molecular-weight heparin (MW: about 5000 Da, 6.4 mg/mL) and protamine (MW: about 3000 Da, 10 mg/mL) at a ratio of 7:3 (vol:vol) yields a dispersion of microparticles (1-6 μm in diameter). In this study, diluted low-molecular-weight heparin solution in saline (0.32 mg/mL) mixed with diluted protamine (0.5 mg/mL) at a ratio at 7:3 (vol:vol) resulted in soluble nanoparticles (112.5 ± 46.1 nm in diameter). The generated NPs could be then stabilized by adding 2 mg/mL dextran (MW: 178-217 kDa) and remained soluble after lyophilization of dialyzed LMW-H/P NP solution. We then evaluated the capacity of LMW-H/P NPs to protect activity of FGF-2. Interaction between FGF-2 and LMW-H/P NPs substantially prolonged the biological half-life of FGF-2. Furthermore, FGF-2 molecules were protected from inactivation by heat and proteolysis in the presence of LMW-H/P NPs. © 2010 Mori et al.

Mori Y.,Aeromedical Laboratory | Mori Y.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | Tagawa T.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | Kuno T.,Kankyo Science Co. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nanoparticle Research | Year: 2011

A simple, environmentally friendly method for preparing highly size-controlled spherical silver nanoparticles was developed that involved heating a mixture of silver-containing glass powder and an aqueous solution of glucose. The stabilizing agent for silver nanoparticles was found to be caramel, which was generated from glucose when preparing the nanoparticles. The particle size was independent of the reaction time, but it increased proportionally with the square root of the glucose concentration in the range 0.25-8.0 wt% (corresponding to particle sizes of 3.48 ± 1.83 to 20.0 ± 2.76 nm). Difference of the generation mechanism of silver nanoparticles between this inhomogeneous system and a system in which Ag+ was homogeneously dispersed was discussed. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

Nishi S.,Aeromedical Laboratory
Military Medicine | Year: 2011

Introduction: Generally, hypoxia at less than 10,000 ft (3,048 m) has no apparent effect on aircrews. Nevertheless, several hypoxic incidents have been reported in flights below 10,000 ft. A recently introduced pulse oximeter using finger probes allows accurate monitoring of oxygen saturation (SPO2 ) in the aeromedical environment. Using such a pulse oximeter, in-flight SPO 2 levels were evaluated in aircrew in unpressurized aircraft. In addition, career inflight hypoxic experiences were surveyed. Methods: In-flight SPO 2 was measured in aircrews operating UH-60J helicopters at up to 13,000 ft, and 338 aircrew members operating unpressurized cabin aircraft were surveyed concerning possible in-flight hypoxic experiences. Results: In aircrews operating UH-60J helicopters, SPO 2 decreased significantly at altitudes over 5,000 ft, most markedly at 13,000 ft (vs. ground level). The survey identified three aircrew members with experiences suggesting hypoxemia at below 5,000 ft. Conclusions: Careful attention should be paid to the possibility of hypoxia in aircrews operating unpressurized cabin aircraft. Copyright © Association of Military Surgeons of the US. All rights reserved.

Ichida K.,Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science | Ichida K.,Jikei University School of Medicine | Matsuo H.,National Defense Medical College | Takada T.,University of Tokyo | And 23 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2012

ABCG2, also known as BCRP, is a high-capacity urate exporter, the dysfunction of which raises gout/hyperuricemia risk. Generally, hyperuricemia has been classified into urate 'overproduction type' and/or 'underexcretion type' based solely on renal urate excretion, without considering an extra-renal pathway. Here we show that decreased extra-renal urate excretion caused by ABCG2 dysfunction is a common mechanism of hyperuricemia. Clinical parameters, including urinary urate excretion, are examined in 644 male outpatients with hyperuricemia. Paradoxically, ABCG2 export dysfunction significantly increases urinary urate excretion and risk ratio of urate overproduction. Abcg2-knockout mice show increased serum uric acid levels and renal urate excretion, and decreased intestinal urate excretion. Together with high ABCG2 expression in extra-renal tissues, our data suggest that the 'overproduction type' in the current concept of hyperuricemia be renamed 'renal overload type', which consists of two subtypes-'extra-renal urate underexcretion' and genuine 'urate overproduction'-providing a new concept valuable for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Nogami Y.,Aeromedical Laboratory | Kawakami M.,Self Defense Force Central Hospital | Yura H.,Netech Inc.
Artificial Organs | Year: 2013

Photocrosslinkable chitosan (Az-CH-LA) contains lactose moieties and photoreactive azide groups, and its viscous solution forms an insoluble hydrogel on exposure to UV irradiation. We previously developed an emergency hemostatic kit using the Az-CH-LA solution, calcium alginate, and a UV irradiation apparatus. However, a suitable UV irradiation apparatus is required to effectively convert the Az-CH-LA solution into a hydrogel, and power supply to use the UV irradiation apparatus may not always be available in a disaster area or battlefield. To address this problem, we produced a portable, battery-powered UV irradiation apparatus constituting a novel hemostatic kit for severe hemorrhage. When the hemostatic kit using the UV irradiation apparatus was examined using a rat model of severe hemorrhage, the survival rate increased up to 73%. Hematological values as markers of hemorrhage did not change significantly over the first 3 days. In this study, we describe the characteristics of a portable UV irradiation apparatus and its use in an emergency hemostatic kit prepared using Az-CH-LA and calcium alginate for severe hemorrhage. © 2013, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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