Aeromedical Laboratory

Tachikawa, Japan

Aeromedical Laboratory

Tachikawa, Japan
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Watanabe S.,National Defense Medical College Research Institute | Matsuo H.,National Defense Medical College | Kobayashi Y.,National Defense Medical College | Satoh Y.,National Defense Medical College | And 6 more authors.
Neuroscience Research | Year: 2010

The neurotoxicity of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a significant clinical problem, but its mechanisms remain unclear. Previous studies of CO-exposed rats showed spatial memory disturbances and degradation of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the brain; however, regional localization of the degradation was not analyzed. In the present study, we histologically determined the foci of CO effects in the hippocampus. Wistar rats were exposed to CO for 60 min (1000 ppm for 40 min + 3000 ppm for 20 min) and returned into room air. For histological evaluation, the animals were sacrificed 90 min, 1, 7 and 14 days after CO exposure and the brain tissue was analyzed with hematoxylin-eosin (HE), Nissl and Gallyas myelin staining as well as immunohistochemistry for MBP and phosphorylated or nonphosphorylated neurofilament. No histological changes were observed on HE, Nissl or Gallyas staining. In contrast, we detected MBP reduction at 90 min after CO exposure in the dentate gyrus and CA3, and the recovery of MBP was observed after 14 days. The immunoreactivity of neurofilament also changed after CO exposure. Nevertheless, water maze test showed no significant effects of CO exposure on spatial memory. Our findings demonstrate that CO poisoning causes transient degradation of MBP and axonal injury in the hippocampus even though the animals showed no neurological disturbances. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society.


Mori Y.,Aeromedical Laboratory | Mori Y.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | Tagawa T.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | Kuno T.,Kankyo Science Co. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nanoparticle Research | Year: 2011

A simple, environmentally friendly method for preparing highly size-controlled spherical silver nanoparticles was developed that involved heating a mixture of silver-containing glass powder and an aqueous solution of glucose. The stabilizing agent for silver nanoparticles was found to be caramel, which was generated from glucose when preparing the nanoparticles. The particle size was independent of the reaction time, but it increased proportionally with the square root of the glucose concentration in the range 0.25-8.0 wt% (corresponding to particle sizes of 3.48 ± 1.83 to 20.0 ± 2.76 nm). Difference of the generation mechanism of silver nanoparticles between this inhomogeneous system and a system in which Ag+ was homogeneously dispersed was discussed. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.


Mori Y.,Aeromedical Laboratory | Mori Y.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | Nakamura S.,National Defense Medical College | Kawakami M.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2010

We produced low-molecular-weight heparin/protamine nanoparticles (LMW-H/P NPs) as a carrier for heparin-binding growth factors, such as fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). A mixture of low-molecular-weight heparin (MW: about 5000 Da, 6.4 mg/mL) and protamine (MW: about 3000 Da, 10 mg/mL) at a ratio of 7:3 (vol:vol) yields a dispersion of microparticles (1-6 μm in diameter). In this study, diluted low-molecular-weight heparin solution in saline (0.32 mg/mL) mixed with diluted protamine (0.5 mg/mL) at a ratio at 7:3 (vol:vol) resulted in soluble nanoparticles (112.5 ± 46.1 nm in diameter). The generated NPs could be then stabilized by adding 2 mg/mL dextran (MW: 178-217 kDa) and remained soluble after lyophilization of dialyzed LMW-H/P NP solution. We then evaluated the capacity of LMW-H/P NPs to protect activity of FGF-2. Interaction between FGF-2 and LMW-H/P NPs substantially prolonged the biological half-life of FGF-2. Furthermore, FGF-2 molecules were protected from inactivation by heat and proteolysis in the presence of LMW-H/P NPs. © 2010 Mori et al.


Ohata Y.,National Defense Medical College | Ogata S.,National Defense Medical College | Nakanishi K.,National Defense Medical College | Kanazawa F.,Aeromedical Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Circulation Journal | Year: 2011

Background: The experimental pulmonary hypertension that develops in hypobaric hypoxia is characterized by structural remodeling of the heart. The P2X4 receptor (P2X4R) controls vascular tone and vessel remodeling in several blood vessels, and it has emerged as a key factor in the enhancement of cardiovascular performance. Methods and Results: To study the possible effects of hypobaric hypoxia on the P2X4R-synthesis system, 150 male Wistar rats were housed in a chamber at the equivalent of the 5,500 m altitude level for 21 days. After 14 days' exposure to hypobaric hypoxia, pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) was significantly increased. In the right ventricle (RV) of the heart, P2X4R expression was significantly increased on days 1 and 14 (mRNA) and on days 7 and 21 (protein) of hypobaric hypoxic exposure. Immunohistochemical staining for P2X4R protein became more intense in RV in the late phase of exposure. These changes in P2X4R synthesis in RV occurred alongside the increase in PAP. In addition, P2X1R and P2Y2R mRNA levels in the RV were significantly increased on days 1, 14, and 21, and day 5, respectively, of exposure. The level of P2X1R protein in the RV was significantly increased on day 21 of exposure. Conclusions: Conceivably, P2 receptors, including P2X4R and P2X1R, might play roles in modulating the RV hypertrophy that occurs due to pulmonary hypertension in hypobaric hypoxia.


News Article | December 8, 2016
Site: phys.org

He was the first American to orbit the Earth, a war hero fighter pilot, a record-setting test pilot, a longtime senator, a presidential candidate and a man who defied age and gravity to go back into space at 77. But those were just his accomplishments. What made John Glenn was more his persona: He was a combat veteran with boy next door looks, a strong marriage and nerves of steel. Schools were named after him. Children were named after him. His life story of striving hard, succeeding, suffering setbacks and high-flying redemption was as American as it gets. Add to that unflagging devotion to a wife he has known since childhood and unerring service to his country. His life lived up to the famous send-off that fellow astronaut Scott Carpenter gave to him that February 1962 day, just before he became the first American to circle Earth in space: John Herschel Glenn Jr. died at the James Cancer Hospital in Columbus, where he was hospitalized for more than a week, said Hank Wilson, communications director for the John Glenn School of Public Affairs. He was 95. "We are more fulfilled when we are involved in something bigger than ourselves," Glenn said at his keynote address at Ohio State University's commencement in 2009. Glenn was echoing something he said 50 years earlier, in the NASA press conference introducing him and the other Mercury 7 astronauts to the public after their selection: "We are placed here with certain talents and capabilities. It is up to each of us to use those talents and capabilities as best you can," Glenn said on April 9, 1959. "If you do that, I think there is a power greater than any of us that will place the opportunities in our way, and if we use our talents properly, we will be living the kind of life we should live." For a generation weaned on the space race, few were bigger than John Glenn. Neil Armstrong was the first man on the moon, but he was not the celebrity that John Glenn was. The green-eyed, telegenic Glenn even won $25,000 on the game show "Name That Tune" with a 10-year-old partner, and flew in combat with baseball superstar Ted Williams—all before he was chosen to be an astronaut. Even though he wasn't the first American to launch into space—Alan Shepard was—Glenn's distinction as the first American in orbit seemed to rocket him past the other original Mercury 7 astronauts, what he called "a group dedicated to trying things never tried before." And that's what John Glenn did on Feb. 20, 1962, thundering off a Cape Canaveral launch pad in an Atlas rocket that had never carried humans before to a place America had never been. His cramped capsule's name—Friendship 7—fit his personality. With the all-business phrase, "Roger, the clock is operating, we're underway," Glenn started his 4 hours, 55 minutes and 23 seconds in space. Years later, he explained that he said that because he didn't feel like he had lifted off and the clock was the only way he knew he had launched. During the flight, Glenn uttered a phrase that he would repeat frequently throughout life: "Zero G and I feel fine." "It still seems so vivid to me," Glenn said in a 2012 interview with The Associated Press on the 50th anniversary of that flight. "I still can sort of pseudo feel some of those same sensations I had back in those days during launch and all." Glenn said that he often got asked if he was afraid. His answer: "If you are talking about fear that overcomes what you are supposed to do, no. You've trained very hard for those flights." The end of the flight was a nail-biter. Mission control had indications that the heat shield didn't seem to be holding. They worried that Glenn would burn up re-entering Earth atmosphere. Instead, he returned to Earth a living national legend. At that time John Glenn was only 40 years old. Risking his life was nothing new for John Glenn. He was a fighter pilot in World War II and Korea who flew low, got his plane riddled with bullets during 149 combat missions for the Naval Air Corps and Marines. During World War II, he flew 59 hazardous missions, often as a volunteer or as the requested backup of assigned pilots. A war later, in Korea, his 90 combat flights earned him the nickname "MiG-Mad Marine" (or "Old Magnet A—," which he paraphrased as "Old Magnet Tail".) "I was the one who went in low and got them," Glenn said, explaining that he often landed with huge holes in the side of his aircraft because he didn't like to shoot from high altitudes. But the challenges of combat seemed to pale compared to the challenges of doctors and engineers who worried about what would happen to men in space. Glenn's life changed on Apr. 6, 1959, when he was selected as one of the Mercury 7 astronauts and instantly started attracting more than his share of the spotlight. In later years, he would regale crowds with stories of NASA's testing of would-be astronauts, from psychological tests (come up with 20 answers to the open-ended question "I am") to surviving spinning that pushed 16 times normal gravity against his body and popped blood vessels all over. But it wasn't nearly as bad as when the newly picked astronauts went to Cape Canaveral to watch their first unmanned rocket test. "We're watching this thing go up and up and up ... and all at once it blew up right over us and that was our introduction to the Atlas (the rocket he flew on)," Glenn said in 2011. "We looked at each other and wanted to have a meeting with the engineers in the morning." So why risk his life? Writing for Life magazine in 1959, Glenn explained: "Space travel is at the frontier of my profession. It is going to be accomplished and I want to be in on it. There is also an element of simple duty involved. I am convinced that I have something to give this project." Glenn said his Friendship 7 flight in 1962 came at the right time because the Soviet Union was far ahead in space and America needed to show it could catch up. "I think people really felt that we really were on the way back," Glenn said. "It was sort of a turning point in the national psyche." That sense of duty was instilled at an early age. Glenn was born July 18, 1921, in Cambridge, Ohio, and grew up in New Concord, Ohio, with the nickname "Bud." He joined the town band as a trumpeter at age 10 and accompanied his father one Memorial Day in an echoing version of "Taps." In his 1999 memoir, Glenn wrote "that feeling sums up my childhood. It formed my beliefs and my sense of responsibility. Everything that came after that just came naturally." His love of flight was lifelong; John Glenn Sr. spoke of the many summer evenings he arrived home to find his son running around the yard with outstretched arms, pretending he was piloting a plane. Last June, at a ceremony renaming the Columbus airport for him, Glenn recalled imploring his parents to take him to that airport to look at planes whenever they passed through the city: "It was something I was fascinated with." He piloted his own private plane until age 90. Glenn's goal of becoming a commercial pilot was changed by World War II. He left Muskingum College to join the Naval Air Corps and soon after, the Marines. He became a successful fighter pilot who ran 59 hazardous missions, often as a volunteer or as the requested backup of assigned pilots. A war later, in Korea, he earned the nickname "MiG-Mad Marine" (or "Old Magnet A—," which he sometimes paraphrased as "Old Magnet Tail.") "I was the one who went in low and got them," Glenn said, explaining that he often landed with huge holes in the side of his aircraft because he didn't like to shoot from high altitudes. Glenn's public life began when he broke the transcontinental airspeed record, bursting from Los Angeles to New York City in 3 hours, 23 minutes and 8 seconds. With his Crusader averaging 725 mph, the 1957 flight proved the jet could endure stress when pushed to maximum speeds over long distances. In New York, he got a hero's welcome—his first tickertape parade. He got another after his flight on Friendship 7. That mission also introduced Glenn to politics. He addressed a joint session of Congress, and dined at the White House. He became friends with President Kennedy and ally and friend of his brother, Robert. The Kennedys urged him to enter politics, and after a difficult few starts he did. Glenn spent 24 years in the U.S. Senate, representing Ohio longer than any other senator in the state's history. He announced his impending retirement in 1997, 35 years to the day after he became the first American in orbit, saying "there is still no cure for the common birthday." Glenn's returned to space in a long-awaited second flight in 1998 aboard the space shuttle Discovery. He got to move around aboard the shuttle for far longer—nine days compared with just under five hours in 1962—as well as sleep and experiment with bubbles in weightlessness. In a news conference from space, Glenn said "to look out at this kind of creation out here and not believe in God is to me impossible." NASA tailored a series of geriatric-reaction experiments to create a scientific purpose for Glenn's mission, but there was more to it than that: a revival of the excitement of the earliest days of the space race, a public relations bonanza and the gift of a lifetime. Glenn would later write that when he mentioned the idea of going back into space to his wife, Annie, she responded: "Over my dead body." Glenn and his crewmates flew 3.6 million miles, compared with 75,000 miles aboard Friendship 7. Shortly before he ran for the 1984 Democratic presidential nomination, a new generation was introduced to astronaut Glenn with the film adaptation of Tom Wolfe's book "The Right Stuff." He was portrayed as the ultimate straight arrow amid a group of hard-partying astronauts. Glenn said in 2011: "I don't think any of us cared for the movie 'The Right Stuff'; I know I didn't." Glenn was unable to capitalize on the publicity, though, and his poorly organized campaign was short-lived. He dropped out of the race with his campaign $2.5 million in the red—a debt that lingered even after he retired from the Senate in 1999. He later joked that except for going into debt, humiliating his family and gaining 16 pounds, running for president was a good experience. Glenn generally steered clear of campaigns after that, saying he didn't want to mix politics with his second space flight. He sat out the Senate race to succeed him—he was hundreds of miles above Earth on Election Day—and largely was quiet in the 2000 presidential race. He first ran for the Senate in 1964 but left the race when he suffered a concussion after slipping in the bathroom and hit his head on the tub. He tried again in 1970 but was defeated in the primary by Howard Metzenbaum, who later lost the general election to Robert Taft Jr. It was the start of a complex relationship with Metzenbaum, whom he later joined in the Senate. For the next four years, Glenn devoted his attention to business and investments that made him a multimillionaire. He had joined the board of Royal Crown Cola after the aborted 1964 campaign, and was president of Royal Crown International from 1967 to 1969. In the early 1970s, he remained with Royal Crown and invested in a chain of Holiday Inns. In 1974, Glenn ran against Metzenbaum in what turned into a bitter primary and won the election. He eventually made peace with Metzenbaum, who won election to the Senate in 1976. Glenn set a record in 1980 by winning re-election with a 1.6-million vote margin. He became an expert on nuclear weaponry and was the Senate's most dogged advocate of non-proliferation. He was the leading supporter of the B-1 bomber when many in Congress doubted the need for it. As chairman of the Governmental Affairs Committee, he turned a microscope on waste and fraud in the federal bureaucracy. Glenn said the lowest point of his life was 1990, when he and four other senators came under scrutiny for their connections to Charles Keating, the notorious financier who eventually served prison time for his role in the costly savings and loan failure of the 1980s. The Senate Ethics Committee cleared Glenn of serious wrongdoing but said he "exercised poor judgment." The episode was the only brush with scandal in his long public career and didn't diminish his popularity in Ohio. Glenn joked that the only astronaut he was envious of was his fellow Ohioan: Neil Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon. "I've been very fortunate to have a lot of great experiences in my life and I'm thankful for them," he said in 2012. In 1943, Glenn married his childhood sweetheart, Anna Margaret Castor. They met when they were toddlers, and when she had mumps as a teenager he came to her house, cut a hole in her bedroom window screen, and passed her a radio to keep her company, a friend recounted. "I don't remember the first time I told Annie I loved her, or the first time she told me," Glenn would write in his memoir. "It was just something we both knew." He bought her a diamond engagement ring in 1942 for $125. It's never been replaced. When he was introduced with his fellow Mercury 7 astronauts in 1959, he talked about the support of his family: "My wife's attitude toward this has been the same as it has been all along through all my flying. If it is what I want to do, she is behind it and the kids are too, 100 percent." They had two children, Carolyn and John David. He and his wife, Annie, split their later years between Washington and Columbus. Both served as trustees at their alma mater, Muskingum College. Glenn spent time promoting the John Glenn School of Public Affairs at Ohio State University, which also houses an archive of his private papers and photographs. This undated photo made available by NASA shows astronaut John Glenn in his Mercury flight suit. Glenn, the first American to orbit Earth who later spent 24 years representing Ohio in the Senate, died Thursday, Dec. 8, 2016, at the age of 95. (NASA via AP) In this February 1962 photo made available by NASA, astronaut John Glenn looks into a Celestial Training Device globe at the Aeromedical Laboratory at Cape Canaveral, Fla. Glenn, the first American to orbit Earth who later spent 24 years representing Ohio in the Senate, died Thursday, Dec. 8, 2016, at the age of 95. (NASA via AP) In this May 14, 2015 file photo, former astronaut and senator John Glenn answers questions during an interview at the Ohio Statehouse. Glenn died Thursday, Dec. 8, 2016, at the age of 95. (AP Photo/Paul Vernon, File) In this Feb. 23, 1962 file photo, astronaut John Glenn and President John F. Kennedy inspect the Friendship 7, the Mercury capsule in which Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth. Kennedy presented Distinguished Service medal to Glenn at Cape Canaveral, Fla. At right is Vice President Lyndon Johnson. Glenn, who later spent 24 years representing Ohio in the Senate, has died at 95. (AP Photo/Vincent P. Connolly, File)


News Article | December 8, 2016
Site: phys.org

Glenn died at the James Cancer Hospital in Columbus, Ohio, where he was hospitalized for more than a week, said Hank Wilson, communications director for the John Glenn School of Public Affairs. John Herschel Glenn Jr. had two major career paths that often intersected: flying and politics, and he soared in both of them. Before he gained fame orbiting the world, he was a fighter pilot in two wars, and as a test pilot, he set a transcontinental speed record. He later served 24 years in the Senate from Ohio. A rare setback was a failed 1984 run for the Democratic presidential nomination. His long political career enabled him to return to space in the shuttle Discovery at age 77 in 1998, a cosmic victory lap that he relished and turned into a teachable moment about growing old. He holds the record for the oldest person in space. More than anything, Glenn was the ultimate and uniquely American space hero: a combat veteran with an easy smile, a strong marriage of 70 years and nerves of steel. Schools, a space center and the Columbus airport were named after him. So were children. The Soviet Union leaped ahead in space exploration by putting the Sputnik 1 satellite in orbit in 1957, and then launched the first man in space, cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, in a 108-minute orbital flight on April 12, 1961. After two suborbital flights by Alan Shepard Jr. and Gus Grissom, it was up to Glenn to be the first American to orbit the Earth. "Godspeed, John Glenn," fellow astronaut Scott Carpenter radioed just before Glenn thundered off a Cape Canaveral launch pad, now a National Historic Landmark, to a place America had never been. At the time of that Feb. 20, 1962, flight, Glenn was 40 years old. With the all-business phrase, "Roger, the clock is operating, we're underway," Glenn radioed to Earth as he started his 4 hours, 55 minutes and 23 seconds in space. Years later, he explained he said that because he didn't feel like he had lifted off and it was the only way he knew he had launched. During the flight, Glenn uttered a phrase that he would repeat frequently throughout life: "Zero G, and I feel fine." "It still seems so vivid to me," Glenn said in a 2012 interview with The Associated Press on the 50th anniversary of the flight. "I still can sort of pseudo feel some of those same sensations I had back in those days during launch and all." Glenn said he was often asked if he was afraid, and he replied, "If you are talking about fear that overcomes what you are supposed to do, no. You've trained very hard for those flights." Glenn's ride in the cramped Friendship 7 capsule had its scary moments, however. Sensors showed his heat shield was loose after three orbits, and Mission Control worried he might burn up during re-entry when temperatures reached 3,000 degrees. But the heat shield held. Even before then, Glenn flew in dangerous skies. He was a fighter pilot in World War II and Korea who flew low, got his plane riddled with bullets, flew with baseball great Ted Williams and earned macho nicknames during 149 combat missions. And as a test pilot he broke aviation records. The green-eyed, telegenic Marine even won $25,000 on the game show "Name That Tune" with a 10-year-old partner. And that was before April 6, 1959, when his life changed by being selected as one of the Mercury 7 astronauts and instantly started attracting more than his share of the spotlight. Glenn in later years regaled crowds with stories of NASA's testing of would-be astronauts, from psychological tests—come with 20 answers to the open-ended question "I am"—to surviving spinning that pushed 16 times normal gravity against his body, popping blood vessels. But it wasn't nearly as bad as coming to Cape Canaveral to see the first unmanned rocket test. "We're watching this thing go up and up and up ... and all at once it blew up right over us, and that was our introduction to the Atlas," Glenn said in 2011. "We looked at each other and wanted to have a meeting with the engineers in the morning." In 1959, Glenn wrote in Life magazine: "Space travel is at the frontier of my profession. It is going to be accomplished, and I want to be in on it. There is also an element of simple duty involved. I am convinced that I have something to give this project." That sense of duty was instilled at an early age. Glenn was born July 18, 1921, in Cambridge, Ohio, and grew up in New Concord, Ohio, with the nickname "Bud." He joined the town band as a trumpeter at age 10 and accompanied his father one Memorial Day in an echoing version of "Taps." In his 1999 memoir, Glenn wrote "that feeling sums up my childhood. It formed my beliefs and my sense of responsibility. Everything that came after that just came naturally." His love of flight was lifelong; John Glenn Sr. spoke of the many summer evenings he arrived home to find his son running around the yard with outstretched arms, pretending he was piloting a plane. Last June, at a ceremony renaming the Columbus airport for him, Glenn recalled imploring his parents to take him to that airport to look at planes whenever they passed through the city: "It was something I was fascinated with." He piloted his own private plane until age 90. Glenn's goal of becoming a commercial pilot was changed by World War II. He left Muskingum College to join the Naval Air Corps and soon after, the Marines. He became a successful fighter pilot who ran 59 hazardous missions, often as a volunteer or as the requested backup of assigned pilots. A war later, in Korea, he earned the nickname "MiG-Mad Marine" (or "Old Magnet A—," which he sometimes paraphrased as "Old Magnet Tail.") "I was the one who went in low and got them," Glenn said, explaining that he often landed with huge holes in the side of his aircraft because he didn't like to shoot from high altitudes. Glenn's public life began when he broke the transcontinental airspeed record, bursting from Los Angeles to New York City in three hours, 23 minutes and 8 seconds. With his Crusader averaging 725 mph, the 1957 flight proved the jet could endure stress when pushed to maximum speeds over long distances. In New York, he got a hero's welcome—his first tickertape parade. He got another after his flight on Friendship 7. That mission also introduced Glenn to politics. He addressed a joint session of Congress, and dined at the White House. He became friends with President Kennedy and ally and friend of his brother Robert. The Kennedys urged him to enter politics, and after a difficult few starts he did. Glenn spent 24 years in the U.S. Senate, representing Ohio longer than any other senator in the state's history. He announced his impending retirement in 1997, 35 years to the day after he became the first American in orbit, saying, "There is still no cure for the common birthday." Glenn returned to space in a long-awaited second flight in 1998 aboard the space shuttle Discovery. He got to move around aboard the shuttle for far longer—nine days compared with just under five hours in 1962—as well as sleep and experiment with bubbles in weightlessness. In a news conference from space, Glenn said, "To look out at this kind of creation out here and not believe in God is to me impossible." NASA tailored a series of geriatric-reaction experiments to create a scientific purpose for Glenn's mission, but there was more to it than that: a revival of the excitement of the earliest days of the space race, a public relations bonanza and the gift of a lifetime. Glenn would later write that when he mentioned the idea of going back into space to his wife, Annie, she responded: "Over my dead body." Glenn and his crewmates flew 3.6 million miles, compared with 75,000 miles aboard Friendship 7. Shortly before he ran for the 1984 Democratic presidential nomination, a new generation was introduced to astronaut Glenn with the film adaptation of Tom Wolfe's book "The Right Stuff." He was portrayed as the ultimate straight arrow amid a group of hard-partying astronauts. Glenn said in 2011: "I don't think any of us cared for the movie 'The Right Stuff'; I know I didn't." Glenn was unable to capitalize on the publicity, though, and his poorly organized campaign was short-lived. He dropped out of the race with his campaign $2.5 million in the red—a debt that lingered even after he retired from the Senate in 1999. He later joked that except for going into debt, humiliating his family and gaining 16 pounds, running for president was a good experience. Glenn generally steered clear of campaigns after that, saying he didn't want to mix politics with his second space flight. He sat out the Senate race to succeed him—he was hundreds of miles above Earth on Election Day—and largely was quiet in the 2000 presidential race. He first ran for the Senate in 1964 but left the race when he suffered a concussion after slipping in the bathroom and hitting his head on the tub. He tried again in 1970 but was defeated in the primary by Howard Metzenbaum, who later lost the general election to Robert Taft Jr. It was the start of a complex relationship with Metzenbaum, whom he later joined in the Senate. For the next four years, Glenn devoted his attention to business and investments that made him a multimillionaire. He had joined the board of Royal Crown Cola after the aborted 1964 campaign and was president of Royal Crown International from 1967 to 1969. In the early 1970s, he remained with Royal Crown and invested in a chain of Holiday Inns. In 1974, Glenn ran against Metzenbaum in what turned into a bitter primary and won the election. He eventually made peace with Metzenbaum, who won election to the Senate in 1976. Glenn set a record in 1980 by winning re-election with a 1.6 million vote margin. He became an expert on nuclear weaponry and was the Senate's most dogged advocate of nonproliferation. He was the leading supporter of the B-1 bomber when many in Congress doubted the need for it. As chairman of the Governmental Affairs Committee, he turned a microscope on waste and fraud in the federal bureaucracy. Glenn said the lowest point of his life was 1990, when he and four other senators came under scrutiny for their connections to Charles Keating, the notorious financier who eventually served prison time for his role in the costly savings and loan failure of the 1980s. The Senate Ethics Committee cleared Glenn of serious wrongdoing but said he "exercised poor judgment." The episode was the only brush with scandal in his long public career and didn't diminish his popularity in Ohio. Glenn joked that the only astronaut he was envious of was his fellow Ohioan: Neil Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon. "I've been very fortunate to have a lot of great experiences in my life and I'm thankful for them," he said in 2012. In 1943, Glenn married his childhood sweetheart, Anna Margaret Castor. They met when they were toddlers, and when she had mumps as a teenager, he came to her house, cut a hole in her bedroom window screen, and passed her a radio to keep her company, a friend recounted. "I don't remember the first time I told Annie I loved her, or the first time she told me," Glenn would write in his memoir. "It was just something we both knew." He bought her a diamond engagement ring in 1942 for $125. It's never been replaced. They had two children, Carolyn and John David. He and his wife, Annie, split their later years between Washington and Columbus. Both served as trustees at their alma mater, Muskingum College. Glenn spent time promoting the John Glenn School of Public Affairs at Ohio State University, which also houses an archive of his private papers and photographs. This undated photo made available by NASA shows astronaut John Glenn in his Mercury flight suit. Glenn, the first American to orbit Earth who later spent 24 years representing Ohio in the Senate, died Thursday, Dec. 8, 2016, at the age of 95. (NASA via AP) In this May 14, 2015 file photo, former astronaut and senator John Glenn answers questions during an interview at the Ohio Statehouse. Glenn died Thursday, Dec. 8, 2016, at the age of 95. (AP Photo/Paul Vernon, File) In this February 1962 photo made available by NASA, astronaut John Glenn looks into a Celestial Training Device globe at the Aeromedical Laboratory at Cape Canaveral, Fla. Glenn, the first American to orbit Earth who later spent 24 years representing Ohio in the Senate, died Thursday, Dec. 8, 2016, at the age of 95. (NASA via AP) In this Friday, Aug. 29, 2008 file photo, astronauts Neil Armstrong, left, the first man to walk on the moon, John Glenn Jr., center, the first American to orbit earth, and James Lovell, right, commander of Apollo 13, stand at a gathering of 19 of the astronauts who call Ohio home in Cleveland. The gathering of Ohio astronauts was part of NASA's 50th Anniversary celebration. Glenn died Thursday, Dec. 8, 2016, at the age of 95. (AP Photo/Jason Miller, File)


Ichida K.,Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science | Ichida K.,Jikei University School of Medicine | Matsuo H.,National Defense Medical College | Takada T.,University of Tokyo | And 23 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2012

ABCG2, also known as BCRP, is a high-capacity urate exporter, the dysfunction of which raises gout/hyperuricemia risk. Generally, hyperuricemia has been classified into urate 'overproduction type' and/or 'underexcretion type' based solely on renal urate excretion, without considering an extra-renal pathway. Here we show that decreased extra-renal urate excretion caused by ABCG2 dysfunction is a common mechanism of hyperuricemia. Clinical parameters, including urinary urate excretion, are examined in 644 male outpatients with hyperuricemia. Paradoxically, ABCG2 export dysfunction significantly increases urinary urate excretion and risk ratio of urate overproduction. Abcg2-knockout mice show increased serum uric acid levels and renal urate excretion, and decreased intestinal urate excretion. Together with high ABCG2 expression in extra-renal tissues, our data suggest that the 'overproduction type' in the current concept of hyperuricemia be renamed 'renal overload type', which consists of two subtypes-'extra-renal urate underexcretion' and genuine 'urate overproduction'-providing a new concept valuable for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Nishi S.,Aeromedical Laboratory
Military Medicine | Year: 2011

Introduction: Generally, hypoxia at less than 10,000 ft (3,048 m) has no apparent effect on aircrews. Nevertheless, several hypoxic incidents have been reported in flights below 10,000 ft. A recently introduced pulse oximeter using finger probes allows accurate monitoring of oxygen saturation (SPO2 ) in the aeromedical environment. Using such a pulse oximeter, in-flight SPO 2 levels were evaluated in aircrew in unpressurized aircraft. In addition, career inflight hypoxic experiences were surveyed. Methods: In-flight SPO 2 was measured in aircrews operating UH-60J helicopters at up to 13,000 ft, and 338 aircrew members operating unpressurized cabin aircraft were surveyed concerning possible in-flight hypoxic experiences. Results: In aircrews operating UH-60J helicopters, SPO 2 decreased significantly at altitudes over 5,000 ft, most markedly at 13,000 ft (vs. ground level). The survey identified three aircrew members with experiences suggesting hypoxemia at below 5,000 ft. Conclusions: Careful attention should be paid to the possibility of hypoxia in aircrews operating unpressurized cabin aircraft. Copyright © Association of Military Surgeons of the US. All rights reserved.


PubMed | National Defense Medical College and Aeromedical Laboratory
Type: | Journal: The journal of physiological sciences : JPS | Year: 2016

Although teeth clenching induces pressor response, the reflex tracts of the response are unknown. In this study, dantrolene administration inhibited teeth clenching generated by electrical stimulation of the masseter muscles and completely abolished the pressor response. In addition, trigeminal ganglion block or hexamethonium administration completely abolished the pressor response. Local anesthesia of molar regions significantly reduced the pressor response to 2710%. Gadolinium (mechanoreceptor blocker of group III muscle afferents) entrapment in masticatory muscles also significantly reduced the pressor response to 627%. Although atropine methyl nitrate administration did not change the pressor response, a significant dose-dependent augmentation of heart rate was observed. These results indicate that both periodontal membrane and mechanoreceptors in masticatory muscles are the receptors for the pressor response, and that the afferent and efferent pathways of the pressor response pass through the trigeminal afferent nerves and sympathetic nerves, respectively.


PubMed | National Defense Medical College and Aeromedical Laboratory
Type: Review | Journal: The journal of physiological sciences : JPS | Year: 2016

The effects of gravitational loading (G load) on humans have been studied ever since the early 20th century. After the dangers of G load in the vertical head-to-leg direction (+Gz load) became evident, many animal experiments were performed between 1920 and 1945 in an effort to identify the origins of high G-force-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC), which led to development of the anti-G suit. The establishment of norms and training for G-LOC prevention resulted in a gradual decline in reports of animal experiments on G load, a decline that steepened with the establishment of anti-G techniques in humans, such as special breathing methods and skeletal muscle contraction, called an anti-G straining maneuver, which are voluntary physiological functions. Because the issue involves humans during flight, the effects on humans themselves are clearly of great importance, but ethical considerations largely preclude any research on the human body that probes to any depth the endogenous physiological states and functions. The decline in reports on animal experiments may therefore signify a general decline in research into the changes seen in the various involuntary, autonomic functions. The declining number of related reports on investigations of physiological autonomic systems other than the circulatory system seems to bear this out. In this review, we therefore describe our findings on the effects of G load on the autonomic nervous system, cardiac function, cerebral blood flow, tissue oxygen level, and other physiological autonomic functions as measured in animal experiments, including denervation or pharmacological blocking, in an effort to present the limits and the mechanisms of G-load response extending physiologically. We demonstrate previously unrecognized risks due to G load, and also describe fundamental research aimed at countering these effects and development of a scientific training measure devised for actively enhancing +Gz tolerance in involuntary, autonomic system functions. The research described here is rough and incomplete, but it is offered as a beginning, in the hope that researchers may find it of reference and carry the effort toward completion. The advances described here include (1) a finding that cerebral arterial perfusion pressure decreases to nearly zero under +5.0Gz loads, (2) indications that G load may cause myocardial microinjuries, (3) detection of differences between cerebral regions in tissue-oxygen level under +3.0Gz load, (4) discovery that hypotension is deeper under decreasing +Gz loads than increasing +Gz loads with use of an anti-G system, due in part to suppression of baroreceptor reflex, and (5) revelations and efforts investigating new measures to reduce cerebral hypotension, namely the teeth-clenching pressor response and preconditioning with slight but repeated G loads.

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