Amato F.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research |
Moreno T.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research |
Pandolfi M.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research |
Querol X.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Monitoring | Year: 2010
Monitoring of aerosol particle concentrations (PM10, PM 2.5, PM1) and chemical analysis (PM10) was undertaken at a major European airport (El Prat, Barcelona) for a whole month during autumn 2007. Concentrations of airborne PM at the airport were close to those at road traffic hotspots in the nearby Barcelona city, with means measuring 48 μg PM10/m3, 21 μg PM 2.5/m3 and 17 μg PM1/m3. Meteorological controls on PM at El Prat are identified as cleansing daytime sea breezes with abundant coarse salt particles, alternating with nocturnal land-sourced winds which channel air polluted by industry and traffic (PM 1/PM10 ratios > 0.5) SE down the Llobregat Valley. Chemical analyses of the PM10 samples show that crustal PM is dominant (38% of PM10), followed by total carbon (OC + EC, 25%), secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA, 20%), and sea salt (6%). Local construction work for a new airport terminal was an important contributor to PM10 crustal levels. Source apportionment modelling PCA-MLRA identifies five factors: industrial/traffic, crustal, sea salt, SIA, and K+ likely derived from agricultural biomass burning. Whereas most of the atmospheric contamination concerning ambient air PM10 levels at El Prat is not attributable directly to aircraft movement, levels of carbon are unusually high (especially organic carbon), as are metals possibly sourced from tyre detritus/smoke in runway dust (Ba, Zn, Mo) and from brake dust in ambient PM10 (Cu, Sb), especially when the airport is at its most busy. We identify microflakes of aluminous alloys in ambient PM10 filters derived from corroded fuselage and wings as an unequivocal and highly distinctive tracer for aircraft movement. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Fota N.,Research Performance and Method Unit |
Everdij M.H.C.,National Aerospace Laboratory Netherlands |
Stroeve S.H.,National Aerospace Laboratory Netherlands |
Krakenes T.,Sintef |
And 4 more authors.
Safety and Reliability: Methodology and Applications - Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2014 | Year: 2015
The SESAR research & development programme aims to drastically change Air Traffic Management (ATM) in the European airspace. The SESAR project "Develop techniques for Dynamic Risk Modelling (DRM)" aims at demonstrating the need for and potential added value of DRM in the safety assessment of new developments. The main deliverable is a DRM guideline that will help safety practitioners to decide whether DRM modelling is expected to provide added value, and how to conduct the assessment. The added value of DRM is being demonstrated by its application to a SESAR test case. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group.
Cozar J.A.,AENA Aeropuertos |
Saez F.J.,Polytechnic University of Mozambique |
Ricaud E.,Polytechnic University of Mozambique
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering | Year: 2015
This paper presents a method to segment airplane radar tracks in high density terminal areas where the air traffic follows trajectories with several changes in heading, speed and altitude. The radar tracks are modelled with different types of segments, straight lines, cubic spline function and shape preserving cubic function. The longitudinal, lateral and vertical deviations are calculated for terminal manoeuvring area scenarios. The most promising model of the radar tracks resulted from a mixed interpolation using straight lines for linear segments and spline cubic functions for curved segments. A sensitivity analysis is used to optimise the size of the window for the segmentation process. © IMechE 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Carrasco Rodriguez P.P.,AENA Aeropuertos
Carreteras | Year: 2011
This article reviews the assessment of characteristic parameters in airport pavements through the practice and experience built up in Spanish airports. After explaining the concept of the pavements used in airports, the work is structured into three major sections, respectively relative to structural assessments, to surface types and to visual inspections and to the PCI, the index that indicates the condition of the pavement. The former describe the equipment used, the procedures that determine the PCN (Pavement Classification Number) and, finally, it studies the operability of aeroplanes according to pavement resistance. Additionally, reference Is made to conventional assessments performed through visual inspection, surveys or prospecting. The section on surface assessment deals with measurements and equipment, or testing methods, of the friction coefficient, of the texture and of the regularity, with a description in the latter case of the specific index for airports. The sections on both assessments are completed with a set of conclusions. As for the third type of assessment, denominated pavement condition assessment, we comment on the visual inspections performed in airport airfields, based on a catalogue of deteriorations used for determining the PCI. Lastly, the article closes with a general conclusions section.
Carrasco Rodriguez P.P.,AENA Aeropuertos
Carreteras | Year: 2010
This article begins pointing out the American origin of classical Aena asphalt mixtures on FAA AC-5370-10 D "Standards for Specifying Construction of Airports" item P-401 "Hot Mix Asphalt". Gradations of Spanish and American mixtures, show an almost complete superposition when drawn together. Then, new designations of this mixtures are presented according EN-13 108 European Norm: 3 of AC (Asphalt Concrete) type defined on Part 1 of this Norm; 1 of BBTM (Discontinuous Graded Mixture for Very Thin Layers) type defines on Part 2; and 1 of SMA (Stone Mastic Asphalt) type defined on Part 5, Offering an overview of their new gradations and most special features. A note about requested surface texture and skid resistance of airport pavements closes the article.
Gutierrez Ferrandez F.,AENA Aeropuertos
Carreteras | Year: 2010
The article describes the initial composition of the airfield of Barcelona Airport, the improving works approved on his Master Plan, and the evolution of its operational capacity. Presents the used pavements types, and close together, similarities and differences between runways and roads. Analyses performances of flexible and rigid pavements, and marks the use criterion where them better fulfil needed functionality. It presents too airfield new parts built up of every pavement kind. Typical paved zones are presented, attending frequency and intensity of supported loads. Finally, it describes subsoil layers; how a surcharge embankment was built, instrumented and surveyed, and knowledge acquired and applied.
Pascual Pascual M.,AENA Aeropuertos
Carreteras | Year: 2010
This article introduces the resistant and surface characteristics of a pavement to be published by airport authorities when introducing a new paved surface or a big intervened one. And also load conditions of airplanes related to declared PCN. Shows the way to communicate and understand the declared PCN of a pavement. Presents PCN measured on different zones and times in Barcelona Airport. Analyses possible operative affections of lowest measured values, concluding they are inexistent. Marks reasons to demand a surface texture; defines typical measuring standard test and levels prescribed by FAA in new pavements, in normal service, and thresholds advertising to regenerate it before one year and before two months. A short consideration is made upon wheels movement on landing touch-down, running and braking. And points out measures results kept on three campaigns on both runways. Related to skid resistance coefficient, presents minimum values prescribed by FAA depending on the used device and its speed of measurement. Factors governing it are presented. Considerations about differentiating two zones of pavement in every runway are made. Finally, evolution of skid resistance on both runways is analysed relating to operative conditions.
Sanz L.P.,Technical University of Madrid |
Garcia E.,CRIDA |
Gomez Comendador V.F.,AENA Aeropuertos |
Rosa Arnaldo,Technical University of Madrid
28th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences 2012, ICAS 2012 | Year: 2012
In the recent years many problems are emerging due to the aircraft noise on the airport surrounding areas. The solution to this problem is not easy considering that the neighbourhood asks for the reduction of the number of aircraft operations and the airlines ask for a growing demand in the number of operations in the major airports. So the airport and regulatory authorities try to get a solution imposing a fine to the aircraft which its actual trajectory differs from the nominal one more than a lateral deviation. But, which is the value of this deviation?. The current situation is that many operators have to pay a lot of money for exceeding a deviation which has been established without operational criteria. This paper presents the results of a research program which is being carried out by the authors which aims to determine the "delta" deviation to be used for this purpose. In addition it is proposed a customized method per SID and per airport to be used for determining the maximum allowed lateral deviation by which if the aircraft is within it, then none fine will be imposed. The paper will also explain the current criteria used to design and publish the SIDs and will show the results of the performed assessment for determining the deviation of different aircraft families flying the same departure procedure in an airport aiming to define a current deviation value considering operational factors such airfield elevation, temperature, wind, SID design, etc. And last, the method for determining the allowed lateral deviation without any penalty consists in the computation of a set of templates per aircraft family/SID/airport, in such a way that a particular deviation could be compared against the corresponding template. When the trajectory to be assessed is within the selected template limits, it will mean none penalty should be imposed.
Sanchez-Losada J.M.,AENA Aeropuertos
Dyna (Spain) | Year: 2012
PMBOK® standards, provided by the Project Management Institute (PMI), are widely accepted in Project Management. On the other hand, Lean Thinking philosophy is based on the strict fulfillment of customer needs, avoiding anything not valuable from the client viewpoint. In the last few years, Lean Thinking philosophy has been applied to construction projects, so as to become a differentiated management system, called "Lean Construction". Moreover, some authors believe that projects with certain level of uncertainty cannot be managed using PMBOK® standards, but have to be managed by the standards provided by the "Lean Construction Institute". Nevertheless, in this article the compatibility of both methods is defended. Specialized literature has been revised in order to compare Project Management and Lean Construction methods. Lean Construction projects results have been analyzed in order to prove that their achievements have been remarkable in terms of predictability of time and cost. Discussion has been done so as to prove the compatibility of Project management and Lean Construction. As a conclusion, the article proposes a model to implement both methods in a systematic and feasible way.
Alba S.O.,AENA Aeropuertos |
Manana M.,University of Cantabria
Energies | Year: 2016
The main function of an airport is to provide access to air transport both for passengers and cargo. The number of air operations over the past 20 years has increased rapidly, and this has led to a rise in the energy needs of airports to satisfy this demand. As a consequence, the cost of energy supply for airport managers has escalated. At the same time, global energy consumption has soared due to the needs of emerging countries like China and India, with the consequent environmental impact. This complex scenario of environmental and economic factors has made airport managers become aware of the need to reduce energy consumption as well as a more efficient use of it. The aim of this article is to analyze the main behaviors and energy trends at airports in more recent research, starting with the description of the main energy sources and consumers, the application of energy conservation and energy efficiency measures, the establishment of energy indicators and benchmarking between airports, as well as energy modeling and simulation. © 2016 by the authors.