Salazar Lopez-Pedraza A.,AENA Aeropuertos |
Gallart Penas S.,AENA Aeropuertos
Carreteras | Year: 2017
Air transport is a strategic sector in the national economy because of its economic impact and its social contribution in terms of territorial connectivity, accessibility, cohesion and structure. In view of the importance and growth expectations of the air transport sector, the airport operator, Aena, is aware that the future of its activity goes hand in hand with introducing new technologies and innovative ideas in its operation and with working in collaboration with the airline companies, with the aim of bolstering the air transport sector as a key player in achieving sustainable tourism.
Ortega Alba S.,AENA Aeropuertos |
Manana M.,University of Cantabria
Energies | Year: 2017
Airports in general have high-energy consumption. Influenced by many factors, the characteristics of airport energy consumption are stochastic, nonlinear and dynamic. In recent years, airport managers have made huge efforts to harmonize airport operation with environmental sustainability by minimizing the environmental impact, with energy conservation and energy efficiency as one of their pillars. A key factor in order to reduce energy consumption at airports is to understand the energy use and consumption behavior, due to the multiple parameters and singularities that are involved. In this article, a 3-step methodology based on monitoring methods is proposed to characterize and analyze energy demand patterns in airports through their electric load profiles, and is applied to the Seve Ballesteros-Santander Airport (Santander, Spain). This methodology can be also used in airports in order to determine the way energy is used, to establish the classification of the electrical charges based on their operation way as well as to determine the main energy consumers and main external influencers. Results show that airport present a daily energy demand pattern since electric load profiles follow a similar curve shape for every day of the year, having a great dependence of the terminal building behavior, the main energy consumer of the airport, and with heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting being the most energy-intensive facilities, and outside temperature and daylighting the main external influencers. © 2017 by the authors; licensee MDPI.
Amato F.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research |
Moreno T.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research |
Pandolfi M.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research |
Querol X.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Monitoring | Year: 2010
Monitoring of aerosol particle concentrations (PM10, PM 2.5, PM1) and chemical analysis (PM10) was undertaken at a major European airport (El Prat, Barcelona) for a whole month during autumn 2007. Concentrations of airborne PM at the airport were close to those at road traffic hotspots in the nearby Barcelona city, with means measuring 48 μg PM10/m3, 21 μg PM 2.5/m3 and 17 μg PM1/m3. Meteorological controls on PM at El Prat are identified as cleansing daytime sea breezes with abundant coarse salt particles, alternating with nocturnal land-sourced winds which channel air polluted by industry and traffic (PM 1/PM10 ratios > 0.5) SE down the Llobregat Valley. Chemical analyses of the PM10 samples show that crustal PM is dominant (38% of PM10), followed by total carbon (OC + EC, 25%), secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA, 20%), and sea salt (6%). Local construction work for a new airport terminal was an important contributor to PM10 crustal levels. Source apportionment modelling PCA-MLRA identifies five factors: industrial/traffic, crustal, sea salt, SIA, and K+ likely derived from agricultural biomass burning. Whereas most of the atmospheric contamination concerning ambient air PM10 levels at El Prat is not attributable directly to aircraft movement, levels of carbon are unusually high (especially organic carbon), as are metals possibly sourced from tyre detritus/smoke in runway dust (Ba, Zn, Mo) and from brake dust in ambient PM10 (Cu, Sb), especially when the airport is at its most busy. We identify microflakes of aluminous alloys in ambient PM10 filters derived from corroded fuselage and wings as an unequivocal and highly distinctive tracer for aircraft movement. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Cozar J.A.,AENA Aeropuertos |
Saez F.J.,Polytechnic University of Mozambique |
Ricaud E.,Polytechnic University of Mozambique
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering | Year: 2015
This paper presents a method to segment airplane radar tracks in high density terminal areas where the air traffic follows trajectories with several changes in heading, speed and altitude. The radar tracks are modelled with different types of segments, straight lines, cubic spline function and shape preserving cubic function. The longitudinal, lateral and vertical deviations are calculated for terminal manoeuvring area scenarios. The most promising model of the radar tracks resulted from a mixed interpolation using straight lines for linear segments and spline cubic functions for curved segments. A sensitivity analysis is used to optimise the size of the window for the segmentation process. © IMechE 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Carrasco Rodriguez P.P.,AENA Aeropuertos
Carreteras | Year: 2011
This article reviews the assessment of characteristic parameters in airport pavements through the practice and experience built up in Spanish airports. After explaining the concept of the pavements used in airports, the work is structured into three major sections, respectively relative to structural assessments, to surface types and to visual inspections and to the PCI, the index that indicates the condition of the pavement. The former describe the equipment used, the procedures that determine the PCN (Pavement Classification Number) and, finally, it studies the operability of aeroplanes according to pavement resistance. Additionally, reference Is made to conventional assessments performed through visual inspection, surveys or prospecting. The section on surface assessment deals with measurements and equipment, or testing methods, of the friction coefficient, of the texture and of the regularity, with a description in the latter case of the specific index for airports. The sections on both assessments are completed with a set of conclusions. As for the third type of assessment, denominated pavement condition assessment, we comment on the visual inspections performed in airport airfields, based on a catalogue of deteriorations used for determining the PCI. Lastly, the article closes with a general conclusions section.
Carrasco Rodriguez P.P.,AENA Aeropuertos
Carreteras | Year: 2010
This article begins pointing out the American origin of classical Aena asphalt mixtures on FAA AC-5370-10 D "Standards for Specifying Construction of Airports" item P-401 "Hot Mix Asphalt". Gradations of Spanish and American mixtures, show an almost complete superposition when drawn together. Then, new designations of this mixtures are presented according EN-13 108 European Norm: 3 of AC (Asphalt Concrete) type defined on Part 1 of this Norm; 1 of BBTM (Discontinuous Graded Mixture for Very Thin Layers) type defines on Part 2; and 1 of SMA (Stone Mastic Asphalt) type defined on Part 5, Offering an overview of their new gradations and most special features. A note about requested surface texture and skid resistance of airport pavements closes the article.
Gutierrez Ferrandez F.,AENA Aeropuertos
Carreteras | Year: 2010
The article describes the initial composition of the airfield of Barcelona Airport, the improving works approved on his Master Plan, and the evolution of its operational capacity. Presents the used pavements types, and close together, similarities and differences between runways and roads. Analyses performances of flexible and rigid pavements, and marks the use criterion where them better fulfil needed functionality. It presents too airfield new parts built up of every pavement kind. Typical paved zones are presented, attending frequency and intensity of supported loads. Finally, it describes subsoil layers; how a surcharge embankment was built, instrumented and surveyed, and knowledge acquired and applied.
Pascual Pascual M.,AENA Aeropuertos
Carreteras | Year: 2010
This article introduces the resistant and surface characteristics of a pavement to be published by airport authorities when introducing a new paved surface or a big intervened one. And also load conditions of airplanes related to declared PCN. Shows the way to communicate and understand the declared PCN of a pavement. Presents PCN measured on different zones and times in Barcelona Airport. Analyses possible operative affections of lowest measured values, concluding they are inexistent. Marks reasons to demand a surface texture; defines typical measuring standard test and levels prescribed by FAA in new pavements, in normal service, and thresholds advertising to regenerate it before one year and before two months. A short consideration is made upon wheels movement on landing touch-down, running and braking. And points out measures results kept on three campaigns on both runways. Related to skid resistance coefficient, presents minimum values prescribed by FAA depending on the used device and its speed of measurement. Factors governing it are presented. Considerations about differentiating two zones of pavement in every runway are made. Finally, evolution of skid resistance on both runways is analysed relating to operative conditions.
Sanchez-Losada J.M.,AENA Aeropuertos
Dyna (Spain) | Year: 2012
PMBOK® standards, provided by the Project Management Institute (PMI), are widely accepted in Project Management. On the other hand, Lean Thinking philosophy is based on the strict fulfillment of customer needs, avoiding anything not valuable from the client viewpoint. In the last few years, Lean Thinking philosophy has been applied to construction projects, so as to become a differentiated management system, called "Lean Construction". Moreover, some authors believe that projects with certain level of uncertainty cannot be managed using PMBOK® standards, but have to be managed by the standards provided by the "Lean Construction Institute". Nevertheless, in this article the compatibility of both methods is defended. Specialized literature has been revised in order to compare Project Management and Lean Construction methods. Lean Construction projects results have been analyzed in order to prove that their achievements have been remarkable in terms of predictability of time and cost. Discussion has been done so as to prove the compatibility of Project management and Lean Construction. As a conclusion, the article proposes a model to implement both methods in a systematic and feasible way.
Alba S.O.,AENA Aeropuertos |
Manana M.,University of Cantabria
Energies | Year: 2016
The main function of an airport is to provide access to air transport both for passengers and cargo. The number of air operations over the past 20 years has increased rapidly, and this has led to a rise in the energy needs of airports to satisfy this demand. As a consequence, the cost of energy supply for airport managers has escalated. At the same time, global energy consumption has soared due to the needs of emerging countries like China and India, with the consequent environmental impact. This complex scenario of environmental and economic factors has made airport managers become aware of the need to reduce energy consumption as well as a more efficient use of it. The aim of this article is to analyze the main behaviors and energy trends at airports in more recent research, starting with the description of the main energy sources and consumers, the application of energy conservation and energy efficiency measures, the establishment of energy indicators and benchmarking between airports, as well as energy modeling and simulation. © 2016 by the authors.