Aegean Agricultural Research Institute

Menemen, Turkey

Aegean Agricultural Research Institute

Menemen, Turkey
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Ali S.,University of Aarhus | Ali S.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Rodriguez-Algaba J.,University of Aarhus | Thach T.,University of Aarhus | And 7 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2017

We investigated whether the recent worldwide epidemics of wheat yellow rust were driven by races of few clonal lineage(s) or populations of divergent races. Race phenotyping of 887 genetically diverse Puccinia striiformis isolates sampled in 35 countries during 2009-2015 revealed that these epidemics were often driven by races from few but highly divergent genetic lineages. PstS1 was predominant in North America; PstS2 in West Asia and North Africa; and both PstS1 and PstS2 in East Africa. PstS4 was prevalent in Northern Europe on triticale, PstS5 and PstS9 were prevalent in Central Asia; whereas PstS6 was prevalent in epidemics in East Africa. PstS7, PstS8 and PstS10 represented three genetic lineages prevalent in Europe. Races from other lineages were in low frequencies. Virulence to Yr9 and Yr27 was common in epidemics in Africa and Asia, while virulence to Yr17 and Yr32 were prevalent in Europe, corresponding to widely deployed resistance genes. The highest diversity was observed in South Asian populations, where frequent recombination has been reported, and no particular race was predominant in this area. The results are discussed in light of the role of invasions in shaping pathogen population across geographical regions. The results emphasized the lack of predictability of emergence of new races with high epidemic potential, which stresses the need for additional investments in population biology and surveillance activities of pathogens on global food crops, and assessments of disease vulnerability of host varieties prior to their deployment at larger scales. © 2017 Ali, Rodriguez-Algaba, Thach, Sørensen, Hansen, Lassen, Nazari, Hodson, Justesen and Hovmøller.

Patpour M.,University of Aarhus | Hovmoller M.S.,University of Aarhus | Shahin A.A.,Egyptian Plant Pathology Research Institute | Newcomb M.,University of Minnesota | And 6 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2016

Since the first detection of race TTKSK (Ug99) of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in Uganda in 1998 (Pretorius et al. 2000), it has been a priority to track its further spread to other wheat growing areas. To date, 10 variants in the Ug99 race group have been detected in 12 countries, i.e., Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Sudan, Tanzania, Eritrea, Rwanda, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Yemen, and Iran (Patpour et al. 2015). In the 2014 crop season, the presence of virulence to Sr31 in Egypt was suspected based on preliminary field observations of high infection on sources of Sr31 planted as international stem rust trap nursery at i) Sakha Agricultural Research Station in Kafrelsheikh (31.094059° N, 30.933899° E), ii) Al-Sharqia (30.601400° N, 31.510383° E), and iii) Nubaria (30.91464° N, 29.95543° E). At Sakha, wheat cv. PBW343 (carrying Sr31) was scored 30MS-S, and the monogenic line Benno Sr31/6*LMPG was scored 20MS-S at Al-Sharqia. Three samples from each of these lines were sent to the Global Rust Reference Center (GRRC, Denmark). At Nubaria, stem rust was observed on wheat cvs. Misr-1, Misr-2, Giza 168, and Giza 171, and infected samples were collected and sent under permit to the Foreign Disease-Weed Science Research Unit (Fort Detrick, MD). Urediniospores of each sample were recovered on susceptible wheat cv. Morocco and McNair 701. Twenty-three and 11 single pustule isolates were derived and analyzed at GRRC and USDA-ARS Cereals Disease Laboratory, respectively, using 20 North American stem rust differential lines following standard race-typing procedure and infection type (IT) criteria determining virulence and avirulence (Jin et al. 2008). In addition, three supplemental tester lines of Siouxland (carrying Sr24+Sr31), Sisson (carrying Sr31+Sr36), and Triumph 64 (donor of SrTmp) were included to confirm virulence/avirulence to Sr24, Sr31, Sr36, and SrTmp. The experiments were repeated two to three times. Three races in the Ug99 race group were detected; TTKST (four isolates, IT 3+4 for Sr24, Sr31, and cv. Siouxland) from Al-Sharqia, TTKTK (13 isolates, IT 4 for Sr31, SrTmp, and cv. Triumph 64) from Sakha, and TTKSK (2 isolates, IT 4 for Sr31) from Nubaria. This is the first confirmation of races in the Ug99 race group in Egypt, thereby extending the geographical distribution of Ug99-related races. Since Egypt may play a role as green-bridge for P. graminis f. sp. tritici between East and North African countries and the wheat belts in the Middle East and Mediterranean regions, the rust surveillance efforts should be intensified in affected countries as well as in neighboring regions. © 2016, American Phytopathological Society. All rights reserved.

Akin B.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Sohail Q.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Unsal R.,Aegean Agricultural Research Institute | Dncer N.,East Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry | Year: 2017

Genetic gain for grain yield was evaluated in 35 Turkish spring wheat varieties released between 1964 and 2010. The germplasm comprised varieties developed by the East Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute (ARI) in Adana, the Maize Research Station in Adapazari, and Aegean ARI in Izmir. Out of 34 varieties studied, 24 were selected from CIMMYT germplasm. The trials were conducted during 2009-2013 at the same three sites. Average yearly genetic gain for all varieties was 30.9 kg/ha or 0.62%. The top five highest yielding varieties were all released after 1998: Ziyabey, Menemen, and Meta (Izmir), and Karatopak and Ceyhan (Adana). Plant height had a clear tendency to decrease over time. Genetic gain in yield was associated with genetic gains in harvest index (0.51%), the number of spikes/m2 (0.29%), and the number of grains/spike (0.26%). Kernel size and biomass did not change over time and represent traits to be explored in the future. The newest varieties combined higher yield with yield stability. Resistance to leaf rust contributed greatly to yield genetic gain. Turkish breeders made a substantial impact on national grain supply and food security. Future breeding strategies shall combine the utilization of CIMMYT germplasm, a diverse modern gene pool, and genetic resources in an integrated national breeding program. © TÜBITAK.

Adanacioglu N.,Aegean Agricultural Research Institute | Boztok K.,Izmir University | Akdeniz R.C.,Izmir University
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms | Year: 2015

The aim of this research is to evaluate the effects of light intensity, casing layers, and layering styles on the production of the culinary-medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis in Turkey. The experiments were designed in split–split plots and replicated twice. Three different light intensities—I1, 350 lux; I2, 450 lux; and I3, 750 lux— were used in main plots as environmental factors. A mixture of 4 different casing layers— peat (100%), peat–perlite (75%:25%), peat–clinoptilolite (75%:25%), and peat–perlite–clinoptilolite (60%:20%:20%)—were used at split plots and at split plots. S1, a flat, 3-cm casing layer; S2, a flat, 5-cm casing layer; and S3, casing soil ridges 10 cm wide × 4 cm high, 10 cm apart, were deposited on top of 1-cm overall soil casing layers. At the end of the harvest phase, the total yield was estimated per 100 kg of substrate. Biological efficiency (percentage) was determined from the fresh weight of the mushrooms and the dry weight of the compost at the end of the harvesting period. The highest total yield (7.2 kg/100 kg compost) and biological efficiency (27.63%) were achieved from I2 × peat–perlite–clinoptilolite × S2 treatment. Influence of light intensity, casing layer, layering style, and their interaction in treatments with color values (L*, a*, b*, chroma*, and hue*) also were examined. It has been shown that within color values, chroma* (saturation) values of mushroom caps were affected by light intensity, casing layer, and layering style treatments and light intensity × casing layer treatments and the brightness of mushroom caps tended to increase as light intensity increased. © 2015 Begell House, Inc.

Ilker E.,Ege University | Geren H.,Aegean Agricultural Research Institute | Unsal R.,Aegean Agricultural Research Institute | Sevdm I.,Aegean Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Turkish Journal of Field Crops | Year: 2011

The purpose of the study was to determine the stability and yield performances of 20 bread wheat cultivars grown in nine different environments. The trials were arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. Additive main effects and multiplicative interactions analysis (AMMI-biplot) indicated that the yield performances of bread wheat cultivars were highly affected by the major environmental factors. The first two principal component axes (PCA 1 and PCA 2) were significant and they explained 60.9% of the total genotype x environment interaction. A biplot generated using genotypic and environmental scores of the first two AMMI components demonstrated that cultivars with larger PCA 1 and lower PCA 2 scores were high yielding and stable cultivars and cultivars with lower PCA 1 and larger PCA 2 scores were low yielding and unstable cultivars in tested locations. It could be concluded that the Basribey 95 had the highest yield performance and also the stable genotype in the test locations. D{stroke}zmir 85 and Ziyabey 98 were poorly stable although they showed high yield performances in some of test environments. Momtchill had the lowest yield performance in all test locations. It was detected that Menemen location could be the most representative among the tested locations to determine the stability of bread wheat cultivars to recommend the farmers in the Western Coastal Zones in the Aegean Region under Mediterranean climatical conditions of Turkey.

Altan O.,Ege University | Yucel B.,Ege University | Acikgoz Z.,Ege University | Seremet C.,Ege University | And 3 more authors.
British Poultry Science | Year: 2013

1. An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of stimulating sexual development at an early age in male and female broiler chickens by administration of apilarnil, a natural bee product, in the pre-pubertal period. 2. From 28 to 55 d of age, birds were given apilarnil orally. The effects of low (2.5 g/bird) and high (7.5 g/bird) doses of apilarnil on growth performance, testicular weight, secondary sexual characteristics, blood lipids, testosterone and fearful behaviour were evaluated. 3. Apilarnil administration did not cause a positive effect on growth performance of male and female broilers suggesting that apilarnil did not have an anabolic effect. 4. Apilarnil administration suppressed blood glucose and cholesterol. 5. Birds receiving apilarnil remained immobile for a shorter period in a tonic imobiliy test and showed less home-cage avoidance responses suggesting a lower level of fearfulness. 6. Increases in testicular weight, testosterone concentration and comb growth in males receiving apilarnil implied that it stimulates the sexual maturation at an early age. However, a similar stimulation of secondary sexual characteristics was not observed in females. © 2013 Copyright © 2013 British Poultry Science Ltd.

Tan A.S.,Aegean Agricultural Research Institute | Tan A.,General Directorate of Agricultural Research and Policy
Helia | Year: 2011

Plant genetic resources are currently of great interest since they are related to the satisfaction of people's basic needs and to the solution of severe problems such as hunger and poverty. Turkey is one of the significant countries for the plant genetic resources and plant diversity. The conservation of plant genetic resources is necessary for the sustainable protection of genetic diversity, since Turkey encompasses areas of major centers of crop diversity and the centre of origin for globally significant crops, fodder plants and forages. Landraces of many of these crops are still used within traditional farming systems and pastures. Wild relatives and endemic species of the crop are found in their natural habitats in the rangelands and forest areas which occupy different ecosystems. The flora of Turkey consists of high endemism, about 3000 out of 9500 plant species. Turkey is described as microcenters for many crops also. The importance of the protection of existing plant diversity is highly recognized and various conservation programs exist. The National Plant Genetic Resources and Plant Diversity Program (NPGRDP) operate under the coordination of Aegean Agricultural Research Institute (AARI) of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) involves ex situ (since beginning of 1960s) as well as in situ conservation, including on farm conservation (since 1990s). The new uniform and high yielding varieties used in modern agriculture causes the erosion of genetic diversity of landraces, old and local cultivars. The collection and characterization of those genetic resources become very essential. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the important oilseed crops for Turkey and sunflower landraces have significant diversity in Turkey as being one of the "Centres of Diversity" for sunflower. The existing sunflower landraces were collected within the framework of NPGRDP and maintained long term as ex situ at National Gene Bank and characterized for better understanding of the eco-geographic variation of sunflower landraces throughout the region, as well as for assessing sustainable utilization of those collections. The genetic resources of Turkey, eco-geographical distribution of sunflower lan-draces and the characterization result of agro-morphological variation of National sunflower collection are presented.

Tan A.S.,Aegean Agricultural Research Institute | Tan A.,Aegean Agricultural Research Institute
Helia | Year: 2010

Turkey is an important country for plant genetic resources. The conservation of plant genetic resources is important for the sustainable protection of genetic diversity. Because the new uniform and high-yielding varieties used in modern agriculture may cause the erosion of genetic diversity of local varieties or landraces, the collection and characterization of local germplasm becomes necessary. The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the important oilseed crops for Turkey. Sunflower landraces have significant diversity in Turkey as one of the micro-gene centers for sunflower. For this reason, sunflower landraces are collected within the framework of the National Industrial Plant Genetic Resources Project. These accessions are maintained long-term ex situ at the National Gene Bank and are characterized for better understanding of the eco-geographic variation of sunflower landraces throughout region and for assessing the sustainable utilization of these collections. The eco-geographical distribution of the landraces and agro-morphological variation of the sunflower collection of the National Gene Bank will be presented. The amount of diversity and the genetic resources of sunflower used as a source of morphological similarity or dissimilarity of sunflower genetic resources were analyzed. The sunflower accessions used in this study, which were collected from different sites in Turkey, were evaluated for morphological characters. Ecological differences affect the morphology of sunflower; thus, quantitative aspects of variation were evaluated using plants grown under the same conditions. Multivariate analysis was performed for diversity determination of sunflower and morphometric parameters were examined. The distribution areas of sunflower samples showed great diversity. The distinct groupings were determined in principal components and the results of the analysis exhibited a broad morphological variation model of sunflower landraces.

Tan A.S.,Aegean Agricultural Research Institute
Helia | Year: 2010

Sunflower (Hellanthus annuus L.), with its high oil quality, is one of the major and most valuable oilseed crops in the world. Sunflower rust, caused by Puccinia helianthi Schw., is one of the major foliar diseases of sunflower. The pathogen is present wherever sunflower Is grown in the world and causes Important yield losses when severe epidemics occur. The objective of this study was to identify the races of sunflower rust under field conditions in the first and second crop production seasons. Experiments were conducted from 1991 to 2009 at Menemen, Izmir - Turkey. Race identification of P. helianthi was accomplished In field conditions in which seedlings of differential lines were naturally Infected. Twenty-three differential genotypes were used to identify races of P. helianthi. Sunflower rust reactions of the differential genotypes were scored on a scale of 0 to 4, where 0 to 2 = resistant, 3 and 4 = susceptible. Races 1 and 3 of P. helianthi, the causal agent of sunflower rust, were identified at Menemen - Izmir.

Combining ability studies in oilseed sunflower were undertaken with a set of 5 × 4 line × tester including parents for the characters seed yield, 1000seed weight, days to flowering, days to physiological maturity, plant height, head diameter, stem diameter, oil content, fatty acid content (oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acids), protein content, seed length, seed width, and hull percentage. General (GCA) and specific combining abilities (SCA) and heterosis of inbred lines and their hybrids were estimated in a line x tester analysis during the first and second crop production seasons in Menemen, Izmir, Turkey. The variances due to GCA and SCA were highly significant for most of the characters in both environments. The ratio (H/D)l/2 and σ 2 GCA/ σ 2 SCA depicted the preponderance of non-additive type gene action for all the characters except plant height, head diameter, seed length, palmitic acid content, and stearic acid content. However, both types of gene action were observed for seed yield, hull percentage, 1000-seed weight, oil content, and stem diameter at stem curve point. In this study, GCA effects were found to be highly significant for all traits, while SCA effects were non-signiflcant for most of the traits. Based on GCA effects in the first and second crop production seasons, the inbreds 0043 cms, 0046 cms, 0195 cms, 0583 cms, 0704 cms, 0708 Rf. 0845 Rf, 0951 Rf, and 1097 Rf exhibited desirable GCA effects and were found to be good general combiners for most of the traits. Thus, they can be exploited by further breeding for developing superior genotypes and hybrids in sunflower.

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