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Tan A.S.,Aegean Agricultural Research Institute | Tan A.,General Directorate of Agricultural Research and Policy
Helia | Year: 2011

Plant genetic resources are currently of great interest since they are related to the satisfaction of people's basic needs and to the solution of severe problems such as hunger and poverty. Turkey is one of the significant countries for the plant genetic resources and plant diversity. The conservation of plant genetic resources is necessary for the sustainable protection of genetic diversity, since Turkey encompasses areas of major centers of crop diversity and the centre of origin for globally significant crops, fodder plants and forages. Landraces of many of these crops are still used within traditional farming systems and pastures. Wild relatives and endemic species of the crop are found in their natural habitats in the rangelands and forest areas which occupy different ecosystems. The flora of Turkey consists of high endemism, about 3000 out of 9500 plant species. Turkey is described as microcenters for many crops also. The importance of the protection of existing plant diversity is highly recognized and various conservation programs exist. The National Plant Genetic Resources and Plant Diversity Program (NPGRDP) operate under the coordination of Aegean Agricultural Research Institute (AARI) of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) involves ex situ (since beginning of 1960s) as well as in situ conservation, including on farm conservation (since 1990s). The new uniform and high yielding varieties used in modern agriculture causes the erosion of genetic diversity of landraces, old and local cultivars. The collection and characterization of those genetic resources become very essential. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the important oilseed crops for Turkey and sunflower landraces have significant diversity in Turkey as being one of the "Centres of Diversity" for sunflower. The existing sunflower landraces were collected within the framework of NPGRDP and maintained long term as ex situ at National Gene Bank and characterized for better understanding of the eco-geographic variation of sunflower landraces throughout the region, as well as for assessing sustainable utilization of those collections. The genetic resources of Turkey, eco-geographical distribution of sunflower lan-draces and the characterization result of agro-morphological variation of National sunflower collection are presented. Source

Combining ability studies in oilseed sunflower were undertaken with a set of 5 × 4 line × tester including parents for the characters seed yield, 1000seed weight, days to flowering, days to physiological maturity, plant height, head diameter, stem diameter, oil content, fatty acid content (oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acids), protein content, seed length, seed width, and hull percentage. General (GCA) and specific combining abilities (SCA) and heterosis of inbred lines and their hybrids were estimated in a line x tester analysis during the first and second crop production seasons in Menemen, Izmir, Turkey. The variances due to GCA and SCA were highly significant for most of the characters in both environments. The ratio (H/D)l/2 and σ 2 GCA/ σ 2 SCA depicted the preponderance of non-additive type gene action for all the characters except plant height, head diameter, seed length, palmitic acid content, and stearic acid content. However, both types of gene action were observed for seed yield, hull percentage, 1000-seed weight, oil content, and stem diameter at stem curve point. In this study, GCA effects were found to be highly significant for all traits, while SCA effects were non-signiflcant for most of the traits. Based on GCA effects in the first and second crop production seasons, the inbreds 0043 cms, 0046 cms, 0195 cms, 0583 cms, 0704 cms, 0708 Rf. 0845 Rf, 0951 Rf, and 1097 Rf exhibited desirable GCA effects and were found to be good general combiners for most of the traits. Thus, they can be exploited by further breeding for developing superior genotypes and hybrids in sunflower. Source

Tan A.S.,Aegean Agricultural Research Institute
Helia | Year: 2010

Sunflower (Hellanthus annuus L.), with its high oil quality, is one of the major and most valuable oilseed crops in the world. Sunflower rust, caused by Puccinia helianthi Schw., is one of the major foliar diseases of sunflower. The pathogen is present wherever sunflower Is grown in the world and causes Important yield losses when severe epidemics occur. The objective of this study was to identify the races of sunflower rust under field conditions in the first and second crop production seasons. Experiments were conducted from 1991 to 2009 at Menemen, Izmir - Turkey. Race identification of P. helianthi was accomplished In field conditions in which seedlings of differential lines were naturally Infected. Twenty-three differential genotypes were used to identify races of P. helianthi. Sunflower rust reactions of the differential genotypes were scored on a scale of 0 to 4, where 0 to 2 = resistant, 3 and 4 = susceptible. Races 1 and 3 of P. helianthi, the causal agent of sunflower rust, were identified at Menemen - Izmir. Source

Altan O.,Ege University | Yucel B.,Ege University | Acikgoz Z.,Ege University | Seremet C.,Ege University | And 3 more authors.
British Poultry Science | Year: 2013

1. An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of stimulating sexual development at an early age in male and female broiler chickens by administration of apilarnil, a natural bee product, in the pre-pubertal period. 2. From 28 to 55 d of age, birds were given apilarnil orally. The effects of low (2.5 g/bird) and high (7.5 g/bird) doses of apilarnil on growth performance, testicular weight, secondary sexual characteristics, blood lipids, testosterone and fearful behaviour were evaluated. 3. Apilarnil administration did not cause a positive effect on growth performance of male and female broilers suggesting that apilarnil did not have an anabolic effect. 4. Apilarnil administration suppressed blood glucose and cholesterol. 5. Birds receiving apilarnil remained immobile for a shorter period in a tonic imobiliy test and showed less home-cage avoidance responses suggesting a lower level of fearfulness. 6. Increases in testicular weight, testosterone concentration and comb growth in males receiving apilarnil implied that it stimulates the sexual maturation at an early age. However, a similar stimulation of secondary sexual characteristics was not observed in females. © 2013 Copyright © 2013 British Poultry Science Ltd. Source

Adanacioglu N.,Aegean Agricultural Research Institute | Boztok K.,Izmir University | Akdeniz R.C.,Izmir University
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms | Year: 2015

The aim of this research is to evaluate the effects of light intensity, casing layers, and layering styles on the production of the culinary-medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis in Turkey. The experiments were designed in split–split plots and replicated twice. Three different light intensities—I1, 350 lux; I2, 450 lux; and I3, 750 lux— were used in main plots as environmental factors. A mixture of 4 different casing layers— peat (100%), peat–perlite (75%:25%), peat–clinoptilolite (75%:25%), and peat–perlite–clinoptilolite (60%:20%:20%)—were used at split plots and at split plots. S1, a flat, 3-cm casing layer; S2, a flat, 5-cm casing layer; and S3, casing soil ridges 10 cm wide × 4 cm high, 10 cm apart, were deposited on top of 1-cm overall soil casing layers. At the end of the harvest phase, the total yield was estimated per 100 kg of substrate. Biological efficiency (percentage) was determined from the fresh weight of the mushrooms and the dry weight of the compost at the end of the harvesting period. The highest total yield (7.2 kg/100 kg compost) and biological efficiency (27.63%) were achieved from I2 × peat–perlite–clinoptilolite × S2 treatment. Influence of light intensity, casing layer, layering style, and their interaction in treatments with color values (L*, a*, b*, chroma*, and hue*) also were examined. It has been shown that within color values, chroma* (saturation) values of mushroom caps were affected by light intensity, casing layer, and layering style treatments and light intensity × casing layer treatments and the brightness of mushroom caps tended to increase as light intensity increased. © 2015 Begell House, Inc. Source

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